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Archived Articles - Angola




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Is Angola's price for Security Council support over Iraq, a licence to continue state looting? (February 26, 2003)

Angola still faces a key problem with its elite and the state looting system that remains in place. While one child dies every three minutes from preventable causes, "Angola's finances are as non-transparent as the 900,000 barrels it produces each day," says Global Witness.

Dealing with Savimbi's Ghost: The Security and Humanitarian Challenges in Angola (February 26, 2003)

This International Crisis Group (ICG) report offers crucial recommendations to Angola's government, the International community and UNITA to help Angola recover from decades of civil war.

The Oil Flows But Angola's People Live on Handouts (February 24, 2003)

Even though oil companies in Angola are becoming extremely wealthy, 12 million people live on less than a dollar a day. Lack of transparency is a big dilemma and the political elite who benefited from Angola's war economy is now making billions of dollars from the reconstruction effort. (Times)

UN Peace Mission Winds up in Angola (February 16, 2003)

The UN Mission in Angola (UNMA) is nearing the end of its mandate. UNMA has been overseeing Angola's peace process to end a conflict of almost three decades that left about one million people killed. (Reuters)

'Dramatic Change' Since End of Deadly Conflict, Annan Says (February 10, 2003)

Angola, which endured one of the longest-running armed conflicts in Africa, can live "without fear of war," says Secretary-General Kofi Annan. The UN, with the support of the international community, has played a critical role in the peace process. (Allafrica)

Peace Process Has Come To Stay - UN Envoy (January 28, 2003)

The new UN role in Angola will focus on social reintegration, electoral process, human rights and international donors, says the UN Secretary General representative to the country. (ANGOP)

NGOs Urge Govt to Apologise for War Atrocities (January 7, 2003)

Human rights activists ask the Angolan government to make a formal apology for its part in the three-decade war that left a million people dead. "Without an apology the government will continue to have a green light to commit crimes against its own people," says Open Society. (Allafrica)



Further Support Needed To Consolidate Peace In Angola - UN Envoy (December 18, 2002)

Despite enormous progress in the peace process and the UN's strong commitment to Angola, the international community needs to "redouble its efforts" to address the unprecedented challenges the country faces. (Allafrica)

Angola's Former Rebels Glad to See UN Sanctions Lifted (December 10, 2002)

The UN Security Council voted unanimously to lift all remaining sanctions against the National Union for the Total Liberation of Angola (UNITA). The measure "opens the way for UNITA to find solutions to its problems," says UNITA's secretary general. (Agence France Presse)

Unita Denies Angola Diamonds Claim (November 20, 2002)

Unita has reacted angrily to the UN report accusing it of retaining unknown quantities of weapons and illicit diamonds. The UN insists that, while sanctions against Unita have been generally successful, criminal networks still exist. (BBC)

Former Angolan Rebel Group Offers to Back Government (November 12, 2002)

Intending to become a "modern, democratic and dynamic political party," Unita supports the government's measures in the interests of national reconciliation and an urgent need to tackle poverty. (Times of India)

Unita Resumes Diamond Mining (November 7, 2002)

Despite the fact that 45 countries agreed on the Kimberley Process, the illegal diamond trade has resumed in Angola. Some attribute it to the end of the war and the tacit approval of the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) and Unita. (Mail & Guardian)

Angolan Oil Millions Paid into Jersey Accounts (November 4, 2002)

Although Angola's oil reserves are said to be bigger than those of Kuwait, most Angolans live in extreme poverty. The British bank Lloyds TSB in Jersey receives hundreds of millions of pounds in its secret offshore accounts paid by oil companies to the government of Angola. (Guardian)

UN Security Council Decides to Lift Travel Ban Against UNITA Members (October 21, 2002)

Following the implementation of peace accords between the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and the Angolan government, the UN will lift the travel ban against members of UNITA. (Presswire)

UN: "Angola Peace Process at Very Critical Stage" (September 12, 2002)

The humanitarian crisis in Angola threatens to jeopardize the progress made on the peace process. Now, the country needs to be transformed from a war economy to a peacetime economy. (Afrol News)

Angolan Government Accused of 'State Robbery' (August 24, 2002)

The official end of the war and the critical humanitarian situation in Angola have renewed the focus on the disappearing billions of dollars from oil revenues, into the pockets of the "Futungo" -- a secret, powerful elite connected to President dos Santos. (Independent)

UN to Strengthen Angolan Presence (August 16, 2002)

The Security Council set up a UN mission in Angola "to promote political reconciliation, democratic government, human rights, economic development and reintegration into society of demobilized Unita guerrillas." (Associated Press)

OAU Backs Unita Sanctions Until Peace "Irreversible" (May 1, 2002)

The Organization of African Unity (OAU) supports upholding UN sanctions against Angola's Unita rebel movement. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan also approves the continued existence of the four-member panel responsible for monitoring implementation of broad sanctions against Unita. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Annan Envoy Pushes Angola Peace Deal (April 10, 2002)

In an exclusive interview with Africa Recovery, UN Special Advisor on Africa Ibrahim Gambari discusses the role the UN must play as a mediator in Angola's peace process.

An End to Angola's 27 Years of War (March 31, 2002)

The Angolan army and Unita military leaders reach an agreement to end the country's 27-year-old civil war. The agreement, known as the Luena memorandum, reads that "the two sides pledge to put an end to hostilities and restore peace throughout Angolan territory." (Afrol News)

All the Presidents Men: The Devastating Story of Oil and Banking in Angola's Privatised War (March 25, 2002)

This Global Witness report provides an update on the campaign for full transparency within the oil and banking sectors. It continues the investigation, started with A Crude Awakening, into the mechanisms of wholesale state robbery in Angola.

Top UN Adviser on Angola Says There's "A Real Chance For Peace" (March 21, 2002)

UN Undersecretary-General Ibrahim Gambari believes the death of Unita leader Joseph Savimbi may lead to peace if all parties seize the opportunity. Gambari highlights the importance of helping Savimbi's splintered Unita rebel group "reorganize so it can respond to the government's peace proposals." (Associated Press)

Angolan Leader Outlines Steps Toward Ending War (February 28, 2002)

Angolan President Eduardo dos Santos calls on the government's military commanders to negotiate with the rebel group Unita and ensure a lasting peace following the death of Unita leader Jonas Savimbi. (Washington Post)

Angola Moving Towards Peace Talks (February 25, 2002)

The death of Unita's rebel leader Jonas Savimbi is prompting calls for renewed peace efforts in Angola. However, Savimbi's death may lead to a power struggle within Unita that could splinter the group and produce rival factions, thus delaying an end to the war, analysts say. (Reuters)

New Angola Peace Talks Possible - UN Africa Chief (February 5, 2002)

UN Special Advisor on Africa, Ibrahim Gambari, reports that the Angolan government and Unita appear ready to resume peace talks in an effort to end Angola's almost 30-year civil war. (AllAfrica)

UN Sanctions Monitors in Luanda (January 16, 2002)

A delegation from the UN Monitoring Mechanism on Sanctions against Unita are meeting with Angolan diplomats, government officials, and civil society. The delegation asserts that sanctions against Unita have been successful and will continue to be maintained until the conflict is resolved. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

SADC Leaders Declare Unita Terrorist Group (January 16, 2002)

Leaders of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) are developing a mechanism with a focus to halt and frustrate the operations of Savimbi and his Unita rebel group. (TOMRIC News Agency)

UN Initiates Contact with UNITA (January 4, 2002)

United Nations Under-Secretary for Africa, Ibrahim Gambari, has reportedly been successful in his attempt to get Unita and the Angolan government back to the negotiating table. The parties agreed to meet, on the condition that some aspects of the 1994 Lusaka Protocol could be renegotiated. (UN Integrated Regional Information Network)


Scene Set to Resume Peace Talks (December 24, 2001)

UN Under-Secretatry-General Ibrahim Gambari makes public the Angolan government's decision to allow the UN to resume its role of mediator, and to get Unita rebel leader Jonas Savimbi back to the negotiating table. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

UN To Contact Savimbi (December 18, 2001)

The Angolan government has agreed that the UN should initiate contact with Jonas Savimbi, the leader of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (Unita). Unita has battled the government in an almost non-stop civil war since 1975. (News 24)

Angola Wants Unita Declared 'Terrorist' Group (December 17, 2001)

The Angolan government is urging the country's regional partners to declare Unita a "terrorist" group. The US list, which named 39 groups, does not include Unita, which enjoyed US support during the Cold War. (Reuters)

Demands for Immediate Ceasefire (December 14, 2001)

Angolan civil society groups are demanding that the UN take into account the views of all Angolans in its efforts towards reaching a peaceful solution. The organizations, which include humanitarian, religious, and women's groups, are calling for an immediate bilateral ceasefire and argue that the 1994 Lusaka protocol is not enough to ensure a lasting settlement. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Hopes For Peace in Spite of War – UN (November 26, 2001)

The UN's Special Envoy to Angola, Ambassador Mussagy Jeichande, believes the country is closer to peace today than it was a year ago. Ultimately, however, it is up to Angolans themselves to find peace and to decide on the future of their country, Jeichande said. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Angolan Rebels' Hit-and-Run Strategy (November 20, 2001)

As UNITA loses the capacity to wage war by conventional means, rebels are resorting to guerrilla warfare that renders virtually the entire country unsafe and makes no distinction between civilian and military targets. (Washington Post)

Security Council Needs to Tighten Sanctions Against UNITA Rebels in Angola (November 16, 2001)

Cutting the profits from diamond smuggling is the only way to "blunt [the rebel's] war machine" and force the Angolan rebels to adhere to the peace accords, says the Belgium Ambassador to the UN.(Associated Press)

Unita Adapts Its War As Sanctions Bite (November 8, 2001)

Although sanctions on Unita have reduced Jonas Savimbi's capacity to wage an expensive conventional war against the Angolan state, a detailed UN investigation reports that sanctions have not reduced Unita's ability to maintain a state of war in the battered country. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

New Report Casts Doubt on Effectiveness of 'Conflict Diamonds' Ban (October 16, 2001)

The UN supplementary report on the UNITA diamonds sanctions examines the shortcomings of the current monitoring mechanism. State and non-state actors continue to smuggle illicit diamonds, thus undermining the sanctions regime and providing UNITA with revenue to sustain its campaign. (SouthScan)

Thousands Seek Refuge In Zambia In Effort To Flee Angola Fighting (October 21, 2001)

Increased fighting between the government and UNITA rebel forces is forcing flows of displaced Angolan refugees into Zambia. (World News)

Supplementary Report of the Monitoring Mechanism on Sanctions against UNITA (October 12, 2001)

This report discusses the limits of the current diamond sanctions against UNITA. It recommends that the UN establish a permanent mechanism to ensure ongoing monitoring of targeted sanctions regimes and illicit trafficking in high-value commodities in armed conflicts.

In Residential Statement on Angola, Security Council Strongly Condemns Terrorist Attacks by UNITA (September 21, 2001)

The Security Council strongly condemned UNITA's recent attack as it violates international law and is "unjustified by any political goals."(M2 Presswire)

Angola's Wealth: Stories of War and Neglect (September 2001)

The executive summary of this policy paper by Oxfam illustrates the dynamics of a vicious cycle of oil production, underdevelopment, and conflict. The paper calls for greater transparency on the part of the Angolan government and increased international involvement, in order to ensure that oil revenues are used for development instead of Angola's "economy of war and neglect."

Angolan President to Step Down (August 23, 2001)

Dos Santos who has ruled Angola since 1979 announced that he would not run for the next presidential elections to be held in 2002. Will this decision affect the peace process? (Afrol News)

Angola's Tough Survivors (July 28, 2001)

Although the fighting between Unita rebels and government forces has ended in many of Angola's cities, the country is too devastated to begin rebuilding. (BBC)

Small Arms, Mass Destruction (July 8, 2001)

An arms embargo against Angola's Unita rebels has been in place since 1993, but small arms and light weapons continue to find their way into the rebels' hands. Most observers believe that the weapons are coming from Eastern Europe--a common source of illicit arms. (Atlanta Journal-Constitution)

UN Warns of Angolan Catastrophe (June 20, 2001)

After its plane came under attack, the UN World Food program suspended flights to Angola. Much of the Angolan population relies on international aid for its subsistence. (BBC)

Church's Role in New Path to Peace (June 7, 2001)

Acknowledging its own lack of success in Angola, the UN is hopeful that the Angolan church will emerge as the new principal mediator between the Angolan government and the Unita rebels. (IRIN)

Hope for Angola (May 19, 2001)

Despite the ineffectiveness of UN sanctions against Unita rebels, there is a "glimmer of hope" for a peace deal, as domestic pressure is cajoling a reluctant Angolan government to the bargaining table. (Economist)

Unita Attacks Defy Progress on Peace (May 14, 2001)

As rebel attacks coincide with the visit to Angola of the UN Secretary General's special adviser on Africa, the UN urges the Angolan government to relaunch the peace process through dialogue with Savimbi. (Guardian)

Searching for Savimbi's Treasure (May 4, 2001)

The Africa Analysis has a low expectation that Kroll Associates, the expert company mandated by the UN, will be able to trace Savimbi's money. According to this article, Unita's financial resources could be in Angola.

UN Says Angolan Rebels Are Not Seeking Peace (April 26, 2001)

The Security Council applauds the positive steps the Angolan government has taken, but deplores that Unita is not responding to the peace process. (Afrol News)

Belgium Accused Continuing Sale of Unita Diamonds (April 24, 2001)

A secret report of the Belgium General Intelligence Service indicates that Antwerp has continued to buy diamonds from Unita despite the UN sanctions imposed on "bloody diamonds". (Panafrican News Agency)

UN Security Council Extends Mandate of Body Investigating Violations of Angola Sanctions (April 20, 2001)

The Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1348. The document extends the mandate of the Monitoring Mechanism on Angola Sanctions and requests another report for mid-October. (M2 PRESSWIRE)

UN Asks US Firm to Follow the Money in Angola (April 19, 2001)

For the first time, the UN plans to hire a US private investigative company to help enforce its sanctions in Angola, where rebels still smuggle $100 millions in diamonds. (Reuters)

UN Resolution Calls for Enforcement of Angola Sanctions (April 18, 2000)

In this resolution (S/RES/1295), the Security Council calls for states and organizations to take action against arms, petroleum, and diamond trade with Unita and to put into effect financial and travel restrictions against the rebel group.

Unita Continues War Through Raids (April 17, 2001)

Kofi Annan, in his report to the Security Council, calls for the extension of the UN mission in Angola. "Unita still has the capacity to attack positions under government control", says the report. (News24)

"Peace in Angola When Savimbi Lays Down His Weapons" (April 11, 2001)

A peace accord has already been signed long ago in Lusaka. Only Unita decision to stop fighting can bring peace in Angola, says the Secretary General of the Angolan ruling party. (Afrol News)

Angolan Army Hunting Down Rebel Leader Savimbi (April 3, 2001)

Since the Angolan authorities learned Savimbi was alive and in the country, Foreign Minister Miranda reasserted that there is a warrant out for Savimbi's arrest for being a war criminal. (

British Warrant Issued in French Arms Row (March 26, 2001)

After Jean-Christophe Mitterand, Pierre Falcone and Jacques Attali in France, the corruption scandal on arms trade with Angola arrived in the UK, where Scotland Yard received the order to investigate Arcadi Gaydamak - a mysterious character. (Guardian)

Ostend Airport: Arms Running

The Association for a Clean Ostend denounces the role of the Belgian airport in the international arms traffic in Angola, Sierra Leone and the Region of the Great Lakes in Central Africa.

Angolan Rebel Leader Urges Talks to End Civil War (March 23, 2001)

After a series of defeated battles, Savimbi said Unita wants to open dialogue with the Angolan government, using the Lusaka agreement as a starting point. (Associated Press)

The "Fowler Report" S/2000/203 (March 10, 2000)

Final Report of the UN Panel of Experts on Violations of Security Council Sanctions Against Unita.

Angola Calls on UN to Consider Sanctions on Countries Violating Unita Diamond Embargo (February 23, 2001)

The Angolan foreign minister asked the Security Council to take action against countries violating the arms and diamond embargo against Angola's Unita rebels. (Associated Press)

Angola, Sierra Leone Introduce Diamonds Certification (February 19, 2001)

The international conflict diamonds meeting ends with the introduction of identification marks on Angolan and Sierra Leonean diamonds. (Panafrican News Agency)

Pentagon Official Meets Unita Member (February 14, 2001)

Despite UN sanctions forbidding contact with Unita, an US official met the Angolan rebel group. Washington clears itself arguing the talks did not violate the sanctions because they were "unofficial and informal". (IRIN)

Security Council Holds Open Briefing on Situation in Angola (January 18,2000)

This UN press release (SC/6785) reports the Security Council open briefing on the situation in Angola. This is indicative of a trend in an increasing number of open briefings in the Security Council. Some speakers blame the protracted conflict on the activities of Unita (the National Union for Total Independence of Angola).


Monitoring Report Proposes Measures to Enforce Sanctions Against Unita (December 28, 2000)

Likely to emerge are names, companies and activities related to the organized crime profiting from death, destruction and greed. The report's authors warn "Those elements have no nationality or loyalty of any kind and can be found today in Angola and tomorrow somewhere else". (UN News)

Mitterrand Son a Suspect in Illicit African Arms Deals (December 22, 2000)

Francois Mitterrand's son, once an advisor on Africa policy for his father, has been accused of involvement in illegal arms sales to Angola. Other former senior figures in the French government have also been implicated. (Guardian)

UN Exposes Angola Diamond Trade (December 22, 2000)

The Security Council report on conflict diamonds from Angola says that De Beers bears some responsibility for the illicit diamond trade. Meanwhile, Canada calls for the creation of a permanent board to monitor sanctions on conflict diamonds. (BBC)

Final Report of the Monitoring Mechanism on Angola Sanctions (December 21, 2000)

An extremely detailed UN report on the violation of sanctions against UNITA.

Angola Rebels Arm Despite Sanctions (December 21, 2000)

The Security Council's Angola diamond report analyzes the situation in the war-torn country, and suggests that while Unita's conventional war capacity has been mostly destroyed, Unita insurgents are still operating in allegedly government-controlled areas. (United Press International)

Burkina Faso Co-Operates on Arms (December 3, 2000)

Accused of breaking the arms embargo against rebels in Sierra Leone and Angola by trading arms for diamonds, Burkina Faso says that it will allow a UN-supervised institution to monitor its arms imports. (BBC)

UN Panel: Dealers Buying Illegal Diamonds from Angolan Rebels (October 31, 2000)

The five-member panel, created by the Security Council to investigate the trade in conflict diamonds, confirms that Unita continues to mine and sell diamonds. The panel is still looking into reports that several countries have violated sanctions. (Associated Press)

Governments Defy Unita Sanctions (October 30, 2000)

An internal UN report reveals that Uganda, Rwanda and Burkina Faso have failed to uphold UN sanctions barring Angola's Unita rebels from acquiring arms and trading in diamonds. Togo is the only named African country which has banned transactions of Angolan diamonds not covered by a certificate of origin. (BBC)

Unita Defy Diamond Ban (October 27, 2000)

In contradiction to an Angolan government statement, Unita maintains that it has access to diamond-producing areas, and will continue to trade diamonds for the foreseeable future. (BBC)

Angola - Security Council to Maintain UN Office for Six More Months (October 16, 2000)

Blaming Unita for the resumption of the war in Angola, the Security Council has extended the mandate for the UN Office calling for Savimbi to adhere to the obligations under the Lusaka Protocol. (Africa News)

Senior UN Leader Calls for World Efforts to Bring Peace to Angola (July 27, 2000)

Angola can reemerge as a prosperous country again if there is a political will to do so, the UN under-secretary-general told the UN Security Council. (Xinhua News Service)

Angola Asked To Negotiate Peace (July 14, 2000)

UN sanctions and the Angolan military are slowly draining the life out of the Unita rebels in Angola. The UN special advisor for Africa asks Angola to seize this opportunity to start the peace process. (Associated Press)

UN Sets Up Panel on Angola Diamond Probe (July 13, 2000)

Action against violators of the sanction will be discussed in the UN Security Council after the newly selected experts panel further investigate the diamond trade in Angola. (Xinhua News Agency)

Briefing By US Envoy to the UN Richard Holbrooke on Africa (June 30, 2000)

At a briefing with African journalists, the US Ambassador to the UN explained that Africa is a top priority for the US government. He denied the US's alleged "double" standard towards Africa, but admitted that the US is "partly to blame" for the difficulties in UN peacekeeping. (UN Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN)/ Africa News )

Excerpts from the Report on Angola

Published by Angola Peace Monitor

UN Warns It Will Enforce Trading Bans for Angola (April 19, 2000)

The Security Council put on notice any country or leader breaking international sanctions by trading with a rebel movement in Angola. In the next six months, international monitors will collect information on sanctions violators and those found guilty could be subject to sanctions themselves. (New York Times)

Open Letter to the Security Council Concerning Sanctions against Unita (April 14, 2000)

In response to the final report of the Angola sanctions expert panel, a group of NGOs calls on the Security Council to implement strong measures to reinforce sanctions on diamonds, arms, etc. in Angola.

Diamond Economy Under Threat (April 10, 2000)

In its campaign against the diamond industry, Global Witness, a UK-based NGO, calls for consumer action against the industry as a result of the on-going civil wars in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone which are financed from diamond sales. (Mmegi/The Reporter , Gaborone)

Africa's Gems: Warfare's Best Friend (April 6, 2000)

An in depth report from the New York Times clearly tracing the relationship between ongoing conflicts in Africa and the current prosperity of the diamond industry.

Civilians Suffer As Angolan Conflict Fuels (March 22, 2000)

An Amnesty International report documents the human rights abuses resulting from the spillover of the Angolan civil war into Namibia. (Africa News Online / Amnesty International - London)

Unita Assists Congo Rebels (March 17, 2000)

A definitive UN report states that Unita is fighting alongside Congo and Rwandese rebels in eastern DRC. Uganda and Togo have also been implicated in providing support for Unita, in violation of international sanctions. (New Vision - Kampala)

Report on Angola Sanctions is Challenged in the UN (March 16, 2000)

The evidence of the explosive Angola sanctions committee report (on how sanctions against Unita have been broken, and by whom: two current African presidents as well as the government of Bulgaria and the world's largest diamond exchange) is being challenged by a dozen or more nations. (New York Times)

Spoils Of War (March 15, 2000)

An article from the (Nando Times) pointing out the difficulty of stopping a conflict, such as the one in Angola, which is highly profitable for a number of oil and diamond TNCs.

African Governments Deny Aiding Unita (March 12, 2000)

Rwanda and Togo have denied UN accusations that they helped the Angolan rebel group Unita break international sanctions. (BBC News)

Fowler Briefs UN on How Unita Bursts Sanctions (January 19, 2000)

Canada's Ambassador Fowler's gives detailed report on findings from his trip to Africa in January. UN under-secretary general for political affairs, Kieran Prendergast, also reports on the deteriorating humanitarian situation.

Angolan Rebels Deny Claims They Downed UN Aircraft (January 19, 2000)

Carlos Morgado, a Unita official based in Lisbon, Portugal, says defectors from Unita guerrilla army were only saying what the Angolan government wants to hear (see previous article). Claims Ambassador Fowler has ignored atrocities committed by the Angolan government. (Associated Press)

Rebels Explain Mystery of Downed UN Planes (January 19, 2000)

Article from the Toronto Globe and Mail about Ambassador Fowler's report to the Security Council on his trip to Africa. Among his findings: defectors from Unita guerrilla army reveal that an order from Jonas Savimbi ordered the downing of two UN relief planes that killed 23 people a year ago.

Angola President Praises UN Sanctions (January 17, 2000)

Angolan President Jose Eduardo Dos Santos and Chair of the Security Council's Angola Sanctions Committee, Canada's Ambassador Fowler, are both optimistic about recent success of UN sanctions against Unita. (BBC Online)

UN Sanctions Committee Chair Says Unita Sanctions Tighter Now (January 8, 2000)

New York Times reports on Canadian Ambassador Fowler's push this month to tighten sanctions on Angola.

APIC Policy Statement: New Chance for Peace in Angola (January 8, 2000)

Expresses the need for real support from a strong and committed international community in order to realize this opportunity to build a lasting peace. (Africa Policy Information Center)



Civilians Die as Angola's War Crosses Border Into Namibia (December 20, 1999)

Associated Press reports on military activity across the border in Namibia and states that some analysts say Jonas Savimbi could remain hidden and conduct a low-level bush war.

Security Council Members Blame UNITA (December 13, 1999)

Security Council members reiterate their stantz that UNITA leaders' failure to comply with the 1994 peace accord has created the current Angolan crisis.

Angola: More Refugees Flee Into Zambia, As War Intensifies (December 7, 1999)

InterPress Service article describes increase in refugees due to government efforts to push out UNITA rebels.

Holbrooke to Unveil Series of Initiatives for Dealing With Africa (December 6, 1999)

During an extended trip around Africa, Holbrooke outlines the Clinton Administration's approach towards Angola and the Congo.

A Crude Awakening (December 1999)

A Global Witness report subtitled: "The Role of the Oil and Banking Industries in Angola's Civil War and the Plunder of State Assets." Part of a Global Witness campaign to expose the role of multinational corporations for the harmful way in which they operate in countries that are in, or emerging from conflict.

UNITA Concedes Loss of Andulo and Bailundo (October 26, 1999)

This issue of the Angola Peace Monitor reports on Angolan government military advances which have pushed UNITA out of the key centers of Andulo and Bailundo. Also provides summary of the US Institute of Peace's report Angola's Deadly War: Dealing with Savimbi's Hell on Earth.

Angola's Deadly War: Dealing with Savimbi's Hell on Earth (October 12, 1999)

Report by former National Security Council staffer John Prendergast. Stresses the need for new efforts for peace and internal government reform as well as vigorous enforcement of sanctions against UNITA. Calls for new international pressure on Savimbi to remove himself from active UNITA leadership. (US Institute of Peace)

Pretoria Committed to Closing UNITA Sanctions Loopholes (October 2, 1999)

IRIN/Johannesburg Mail & Guardian report that, following a meeting with the UN panel of experts on Angola Sanctions, the South African government is working on legislation to prevent UNITA money from being laundered through local banks.

UN Delegation Meets Official Over Sanctions Against UNITA (October 26, 1999)

Panafrican News Agency article about activities of the UN Panel of Experts on Angola Sanctions during their trip to the region to investigate implementation of Angola sanctions.

Security Council Authorizes Establishment of UN Office in Angola (October 15, 1999)

The United Nations Office in Angola (UNOA) has been mandated to operate for an initial period of 6 months.

Angola Hails De Beers Diamond Embargo, Wants Action (October 7, 1999)

De Beers said the move was taken to help prevent UNITA from financing its war against the Angolan government with the proceeds of diamond sales.

"Fatal Transactions" Campaign Against Diamond Trade (October 3, 1999)

Global Witness and other NGOs launch campaign to raise public awareness of connection between diamond trade and conflicts in Africa.

Ties with South Africa on the Mend (September 29, 1999)

South Africa and Angola appeared to have mended ties in a relationship marred by Angolan accusations that Pretoria had for years turned a blind eye to support for the UNITA rebel .

Angola Unravels: The Rise and Fall of the Lusaka Peace Process (September 26, 1999)

Human Rights Watch report cites human rights violations by both UNITA and the Angolan government. Describes UN and US failure to speak out against violations of the peace accord and lack of enforcement of sanctions. Argues that the international community has repeated the same error that led to the breakdown of the previous Angolan peace process in 1991-1992.

UN Made Fatal Errors in Angola (September 13, 1999)

An article from the Johannesburg Business Daily about a Human Rights Watch report that is highly critical of the UN's role in Angola.

UN Security Council Urged to Do More for Angola (August 24,1999)

A UN Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN) article about the humanitarian initiative to resolve the on-going issues in Angola with an in-depth diagnosis on its desperate status.

Security Council Demands UNITA Rebels Disarm (August 24,1999)

A UN Press Release on Security Council's concern on the rebel UNITA leadership's failure to comply with its obligations under a UN-brokered peace treaty.

UN Aid Officials and Security Council Members Voice Concern at Deteriorating Humanitarian Situation in Angola. (August 23, 1999)

A UN Daily Press Briefing that Angola, a potentially rich country torn for three decades by civil war, was living at a level of despair that exists virtually nowhere else in the world today.

Canada Urges Tighter UN Sanctions on Angola (July 30, 1999)

Amb. Robert Fowler of Canada, who chairs the sanctions committee dealing with UNITA rebels in Angola, urged UN member states to provide assistance in tightening the UN embargo against the arms and diamond trade in Angola. (Inter Press Service)

UN Bids to Curb Trade that Fuels Angola's War (July 30, 1999)

Washington Post article on the sanctions against the diamond trade in Angola, with quotes from Canadian Ambassador Fowler on the importance of stopping the trade. The articled also cites the US Ambassador pledging US support for this UN cause.

UN Criticizes Donor Response to Angola Crisis (July 28, 1999)

In this comprehensive article, the Angola Peace Monitor reports that UN organizations working in Angola lack adequate resources to prevent a major humanitarian catastrophe. The article also discusses the latest efforts by Amb. Fowler of Canada to render the arms and diamond embargo against UNITA rebels more effective.

UNITA Still Open for Business in Diamonds and War (July 16, 1999)

Article from the Johannesburg Mail&Guardian on UNITA's continuing diamond trafficking and arms aquisitions despite UN sanctions. The one million dollars the UN allocated for an investigation into UNITA's activities is "very little compared to what UNITA can afford to spend to conceal its sanctions-busting operations."

Diamonds Fuel African Conflict (July 14, 1999)

Christian Science Monitor article on the role of the diamond industry as an obstacle to peace in diamond rich African nations as the control of diamond sources provides motivation and resources to buy weapons.

Angola Agrees to Small UN Mission (June 22, 1999)

After four months of denying access to the UN, the government of President Jose Eduardo dos Santos has agreed to a "small follow-on UN mission," according to this article from the Panafrican News Agency.

De Beers Says Complying with Diamond Embargo (June 17, 1999)

While De Beers insists that it fully cooperates with the UN in tightening sanctions against UNITA rebels, the rights group Global Witness demands clarification of the diamond giant's trading practices, according to this article from the UN's INRI.

UNITA Questions UN's Approach (June 8, 1999)

In a communique obtained in Lusaka, UNITA criticized the initiatives taken by the international community against the Angolan rebel group, saying that the UN should "drop the unrealisable goal of making the last war for peace." (Zambia Post)

Is the UN Getting Tough on Sanctions and the Diamond Trade? (June 8, 1999)

Global Witness Press Release commenting on the report written by Ambassador Robert Fowler of Canada, chairman of the Security Council Committee on the situation in Angola.

Envoy Recommends Tightening of Anti-UNITA Sanctions (June 8, 1999)

Article from the Panafrican News Agency about Ambassador Robert Fowler's report on sanctions in Angola.

Report by Amb. Robert Fowler on his Visit to Central and Southern Africa (June 4, 1999)

In his report to the Security Council, the chairman of the Angola sanctions committee, Canadian Ambassador Robert Fowler, makes 14 recommendations on how to render sanctions against UNITA more effective.

Angolan Rebels Hint at Will to Talk Peace (May 25, 1999)

UNITA rebels are open to peace talks with the Angolan government in exchange for lifting UN sanctions on the guerrilla movement, according to Nando Media/Associated Press.

Angolan War Intensifies -- Backed by Whom? (May 13, 1999)

A STRATFOR article pointing out that in spite of official declarations by foreign powers condemning UNITA, the war continues. This might lead one to draw the conclusion that behind the scenes these powers play a decisive role in the battle.

UN Press Release on Angola (May 7, 1999)

Security Council decided to establish expert panels, for a period of six months, to investigate reported violations of measures imposed against the UNITA.

Angola Sanctions - Recent Developments (April 22, 1999)

This article by Global Witness explains recent developments regarding the situation in Angola.

How Unita Beats UN Gems Embargo (May 1999)

An analysis showing why the sanctions in Angola do not work, providing background information.

UN Drive to Track Secret Gem Trafficking Gathers Momentum (Arpil 21, 1999)

An analysis on the impact of the sanctions in Angola and the reasons for which they do not work.

A Rough Trade: The Role of Companies and Governments in the Angolan Conflict

Link to a UN Security Council Embargo section of the report by Global Witness.

Diamonds Dominate Namibia's Economy (April, 1999)

This article in Africa Recovery documents the diamond production in Namibia and highlights Russia's encroachement on holdings that used to be monopolized by De Beers.

New Canadian Mine Seeks Its Place in a De Beers World (April 13, 1999)

Canada is currently the chair of the Angola sanctions committee of the Security Council which oversees a ban on the sale of diamonds. This article provides important information about Canada's new role as a significant diamond producer. It also contains a useful overview of the world diamond industry and its major sources of production.

UN Lowers Flag in Angola (March 26, 1999)

This issue of the Angola Peace Monitor reports little change in the military situation combined with rising humanitarian crisis for civilians, including displaced persons, residents of besieged cities, and expected victims of new food shortages with an expected loss of a quarter of the maize harvest due to war. It also contains updates on accusations of Zambian support for UNITA.

Diamonds Cause of African Civil Wars (March17, 1999)

Media Institute of Southern Africa/Inter Press Service article on the role of the diamond industry in controlling the flow of arms to African nations including references to a UN document citing the industry's role in mercenary activities in Africa.

UN Moves to Wind Up Peacekeeping in Angola (Februrary 27, 1999)

UN will continue its relief work and it is possible a new peacekeeping mission may be sent if fighting subsides.

UNITA Faces UN Clampdown (February 19, 1999)

The proposals include action against those who sell arms Unita.

Canada Aims to Cut Illegal Diamonds from Angola (February 16, 1999)

But is it too late to help the war-devasted country by stopping the rebels source of income?

Angola Turns Down Continued UN Political Presence (February 14, 1999)

The president of Angola has turned down a UN political or military presence, but wants UN relief workers to stay.

Peacekeepers Prepare to Leave Unpeaceful Angola (January 19, 1999)

After 5 years and at least $1.5 billlion, UN peackeepers are no longer welcome.

U.N. Chief Faults Both Sides for Dashing Angola Hope (January 19, 1999)

Annan's reports to the Security Council states that "the conditions for a meaningful U.N. peacekeeping role ceased to exist."

Angolans: No Survivors From Crash (January 13, 1999)

UNITA found the site where the second of two U.N.-chartered planes crashed in Angola - there were no survivors.

U.N. Might Sanction Angolan Rebels (January 12, 1999)

Unanimous Security Council vote to consider imposing new sanctions on Angola's UNITA rebels after the downing of two U.N.-chartered planes.

UN Fury as Second Plane is Shot Down in Angola (January 4, 1999)

Indicates the further unravelling of the UN-brokered peace accord between Unita and the Angolan government .


Angola: Is the UN Planning to Appease UNITA (August 17, 1998)

Chris Gordon of The Guardian on how to stabilize the situation in Angola .

War Looms as UNITA Shuns Peace Process (July 2, 1998)

An article from the Angola Peace Monitor regarding the clear signs that UNITA is preparing to relaunch its war in Angola.

"Angola Embargo Seen Unlikely to Meet Objectives" (July 2, 1998)

An article from Reuters about the additional sanctions imposed by the UN against Angola's opposition UNITA movement, which regional analysts doubt are enforceable.

UN Says Angola Situation at "Critical Watershed'' (June 19, 1998)

Article by Anthony Goodman on the critical situation in Angola caused by the failure of former UNITA rebels to fulfil the terms of a 1994 peace accord.

Council to Impose Measures Against UNITA (June 12, 1998)

UN press release regarding the adoption of Resolution 1173, which specifies the freezing of UNITA funds among other measures, effective 25 June, unless UNITA cooperates in extending state administration throughout Angola.

Fewer Flights to UNITA Violate UN Sanctions (May 4, 1998)

Published by Angola Peace Monitor.


UN Imposes Sanctions on Angola (November 25, 1997)

News release posted by the New Zealand Executive Government.

"Unacceptable" Last Minute Concessions Save UNITA From Sanctions (October 2, 1997)

Published by ACTSA on behalf of the Angola Emergency Campaign.


Lucapa Diamond Fields are Like the Wild West (March 12, 1995)

The men of Angola's diamond regions seem to be so eagerly searching for diamonds (which they then sell at low prices) that there are few pursuing any other professions. (Africa Information Afrique)




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