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Ethiopia and Eritrea


UN Documents and Reports

Statement by the President of the Security Council (February 24, 2006)

In this statement, Security Council President John Bolton called on Ethiopia and Eritrea to attend the March 2006 independent boundary commission meeting in London. The Council commanded the two parties to work with and abide by all requirements specified by the commission to successfully conclude the border demarcation process. The two governments have not held direct talks since the war ended in 2000.

Ethiopia and Eritrea: Preventing War (December 22, 2005)

This International Crisis Group report recommends that the African Union, the UN, the US, and the EU enforce the ruling of the independent Boundary Commission, which assigned the border town of Badme to Eritrea. Ethiopia ought to accept the demarcation of the border as "final and binding." Eritrea, in turn, must lift the restrictions it has imposed on the UN mission. If the two countries fail to comply, the Security Council should impose sanctions.

Ethiopia and Eritrea: War or Peace? (September 24, 2003)

The international Boundary Commission has established a permanent border between Ethiopia and Eritrea, but Ethiopia remains unhappy with the final result. This International Crisis Group report urges the Security Council and other parties in the international community to keep the peace process on track.

Report of the Secretary General on Ethiopia and Eritrea (September 19, 2006)

In a report to the UN Security Council, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan warned of the potential for disaster if Eritrea and Ethiopia remain politically tense and fragile. In addition to the ongoing conflict in Somalia and Darfur, the situation in the Horn of Africa affects the stability of the region, Annan says. He calls for an extension of the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE). This report comes out after the expulsion on September 2006 of some of the UNMEE staff by Eritrea.

Progress Report of the Secretary-General on Ethiopia and Eritrea (September 4, 2003)

This report comments on the status of the Temporary Security Zone, the work of UNMEE and the humanitarian situation in Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Report of the Security Council Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea, (February 21-25, 2002)

The document reports on the Security Council's efforts to build support for the ruling of the Boundary Commission and bolster respect for the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Progress Report of the Secretary-General on Ethiopia and Eritrea (January 12, 2001)



UN's Double Standard vis-í -vis Eritrea, Ethiopia Border War (December 16, 2005)

The Security Council has failed to sanction Ethiopia for rejecting the "final and binding" 2000 UN boundary commission ruling that demarcated the Eritrea-Ethiopia border. Yet when Eritrea, in an attempt to draw attention to this "ultimate travesty of justice," banned UN helicopters from monitoring the border area, the Security Council without delay threatened to sanction Asmara. According to the Sudan Tribune, this double standard is the cause of the UN's recent troubles in Eritrea and Ethiopia.

How Horn of Africa Brothers Fell Out (December 15, 2005)

Michela Wrong, author of a book on Eritrea, reflects on Ethiopia and Eritrea's differences in outlook that have made their border disputes so intractable. (BBC)

Staff Expulsion May Cripple Operations, Warns UNMEE (December 8, 2005)

The Eritrean government has ordered the expulsion of peacekeepers of specific countries from the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Eritrea gave no official reason for the expulsion, but UN diplomats assume the government was frustrated with the Security Council's threat to impose sanctions on Eritrea. The Security Council criticized the expulsion order, calling it "completely unacceptable." (Integrated Regional Information Network)

Ethiopia's Zenawi Exploits the "War on Terror" (November 26, 2005)

Although many international policy observers feel that Ethiopia's government is becoming increasingly repressive, the US-Ethiopian alliance against the war on terrorism has allowed Prime Minister Meles Zenawi to receive $800 million a year in aid from the Bush administration and international financial institutions. According to the Sudan Tribune, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni realized that George Bush treated despots selectively, and decided to freely imitate Zenawi's repressive policies. "As long as you are on the right side of the 'war on terror,' it is safe to be a dictator and tyrant."

Tensions Rise in Horn of Africa (October 20, 2005)

Experts argue that the US-Ethiopian alliance against the war on terrorism hampers the work of the Security Council. The Council is unable to pressure Ethiopia to abide by the UN ruling that demarcated the Eritrea-Ethiopia border. The US hesitates to antagonize Ethiopia on this matter, worrying that Ethiopia will stop its efforts to counter Al Qaeda and other Islamic militant groups in neighboring Somalia. (Christian Science Monitor)

Annan Warns Eritrea of Possible UN Pullout (October 17, 2005)

The Eritrean ban on UN helicopter flights impedes monitoring by the UN peacekeeping mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)of a buffer zone separating the two countries. In a sign of rising tensions, UN Secretary General warned the Eritrean government to stop limiting the movement of UN troops or the world body would pullout UNMEE from the Ethiopian-Eritrean border. (Associated Press)

Intelligence Brief: Eritrea (October 11, 2005)

Dr. Michael A. Weinstein writes in the Power and Interest News Report that the Eritrean ban on UN helicopter flights has placed the UN and Washington in an uncomfortable dilemma. On the one hand, if they fail to pressure Ethiopia more effectively to force it to honor the peace treaty that ended the border dispute, Eritrea may play its military card. On the other hand, if they do put pressure on Addis Ababa, they risk alienating a key nation and destabilizing its regime.

Eritrea Seeks to Up Pressure on Ethiopia Over Border (October 9, 2005)

According to experts and diplomats, the ban on UN helicopter flights represents a calculated attempt by the Eritrean government to force the country's border issue with Ethiopia higher up on the agenda of world powers. But others, including members of the government in Addis Ababa, dismissed the flight ban as "one of the usual scare tactics Eritrea used to impress the international community." (Reuters)

All UN Helicopter Flights Grounded in Eritrea (October 5, 2005)

Eritrea banned UN helicopters from patrolling the Eritrea-Ethiopia border zone, breaching the terms of a peace plan signed in 2000. The Security Council expressed grave concern that the Eritrean government's decision would impede the UN mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) and put peacekeepers at risk. (Reuters)

Eritrea Warns UN it May Resume War with Ethiopia (September 22, 2005)

Eritrea warned the UN that it might rekindle its border war with Ethiopia if the world body failed to resolve their lingering territorial dispute. According to Berhane Abrehe, Eritrea's Finance Minister, Ethiopia not only occupies the village of Badme but continues to build illegal settlements on other sovereign Eritrean territory. The Security Council will keep on monitoring the peace process but considers that Ethiopia and Eritrea bear primary responsibility for implementing their peace agreement. (Reuters)

Security Council Extends UNMEE Mandate (September 14, 2005)

The Security Council extended the mandate of the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) until March 2006. The Council expressed special concern that the high concentration of troops from both parties near the border may revive territorial conflict. The Council appealed to the two countries to avoid any action that might escalate tension and asked them to refrain from any threat of use of force against each other. (Integrated Regional Information Network)

Annan Asks Security Council to Visit Region (June 29, 2005)

Concerned with reports of violence in the demilitarized zone between Ethiopia and Eritrea, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan has asked the Security Council to visit the region in order to assure the countries "of the council's unflinching commitment to the peace process." (Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Ethiopia, Eritrea Run Risk of New War - UN Envoy (March 27, 2005)

The UN's Special Envoy for Ethiopia and Eritrea Lloyd Axworthy has warned that an increase in arms sales to both countries risks escalating the long-running border dispute and destroying the 2002 peace deal. UN peacekeepers patrolling the buffer zone between the two countries have witnessed an increased military build-up along the border, prompting Axworthy to call on the international community to crack down on arms sales to both Ethiopia and Eritrea. (AlertNet)



Cautious Optimism on Stalled Peace Process (December 6, 2004)

Ethiopia announced it would accept, "in principle," the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's ruling demarcating the long-disputed border. Up until now, Ethiopia has rejected the ruling, which Eritrea accepted, leading to a long stalemate. UN Special Envoy to the Horn of Africa, Lloyd Axworthy, said Ethiopia's declaration is a "beginning" but questions still remain over when and how the two countries will reengage in talks. (Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Progress Report of the Secretary General on Ethiopia and Eritrea (July 7, 2004)

UN Secretary General Kofi Annan describes the continuing stalemate between Ethiopia and Eritrea, highlighting instability in the Temporary Security Zone. The report criticizes Eritrea for impeding the work of the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea by restricting movement and detaining local UN staff.

Ethiopia-Eritrea: Has the Algiers Accord been Ditched? (June 1, 2004)

Four years after the signing of the Algiers peace accords in 2000, the border dispute between Ethiopia and Eritrea remains unresolved and the countries show no sign of agreeing to a compromise. The upcoming AU summit should provide African leaders opportunity to encourage the two neighbors to work together towards full implementation of the agreement. (PanAfrican News Agency)

UN Tables Ultimatum to Eritrea, Ethiopia (May 11, 2004)

Eritrea and Ethiopia have reassured the UN that they are still willing to cooperate with the peacekeeping mission there, following Eritrean accusations that the UN peacekeepers committed serious crimes. The UN has responded to the allegations, saying it has thoroughly investigated the incidents and has brought the perpetrators to justice. (Afrol News)

UN-Eritrea Row Sinks to New Low (May 8, 2004)

The Eritrean government has accused the UN peacekeeping force of committing serious crimes and endangering regional stability. In response to the charges, the UN has declared that if Asmara continues to hinder its work, it might consider pulling out from the country. (BBC)

Security Council Criticizes Ethiopia and Eritrea for Failing to Follow Peace Plan (May 6, 2004)

The UN Security Council criticized Ethiopia and Eritrea for refusing to respond to UN peacekeeping initiatives concerning their border dispute. The Council said the two nations' failure to cooperate "raised serious questions about the long-term viability of the [UN peacekeeping] mission." (Associated Press)

Ethiopian PM: Report of Army Killings 'Fiction' (April 29, 2004)

Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi dismissed the World Organization Against Torture 's (OMCT) claim of the army's complicity in an alleged ethnic killing of at least 1,000 people, describing the report "fictional." OMCT accused Ethiopian forces of assisting highlander militias in "a campaign of systematic killing" of the Anuak community. (Reuters)

Ethiopia-Eritrea: Deadlock over Border Ruling Drags on (March 22, 2004)

The dispute over the Ethiopia-Eritrea border has shown no improvement as both countries continue to reject UN initiatives in resolving the conflict. Foreseeing worsening tensions between the two countries, UN Security Council has urged Secretary General Kofi Annan to "keep under review" the effectiveness of UNMEE and to restructure its operations as needed. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Eritrea: Slight Improvement, But Humanitarian Situation Still Grave (March 17, 2004)

Eritrea continues to face dire conditions due to the sustained drought and border dispute with Ethiopia, despite UN claims of slight improvements in the country's humanitarian situation. Simon Nhongo, the UN resident and humanitarian coordinator, argues that "peace is the most pervasive factor affecting development, and this can't come without demarcation." (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Eritrea-Ethiopia: Border Deadlock Might Get "Dangerous", Says Annan (March 9, 2004)

UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan warned that the continued border dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia would result into a "potentially dangerous political stalemate." Annan urged the two sides to cooperate with each other and to recognize and accept UN initiatives, such as the appointment of the UN Special Envoy and the ruling of the Boundary Commission. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

UN Should Go Further, Asmara Says (January 9, 2004)

While welcoming the Security Council's reaffirmation that the decision of the Boundary Commission is binding and final, Eritrea would like the Council to take "tangible measures against Ethiopia for refusing the decision." This would include invoking Chapter 7 of the UN Charter and imposing sanctions against Addis Ababa. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Eritrea Rejects New Peace Envoy Axworthy (January 2, 2004)

Asmara rebuffed the appointment of former Canadian Foreign Minister, Lloyd Axworthy, as UN envoy to mediate its border dispute with Ethiopia. Eritrea considers that the International Boundary Commission's decision laying out the boundary is binding and definitive. (Reuters)


Meles Urges UN to "Salvage" Peace Process (September 24, 2003)

The Prime Minister of Ethiopia has informed the UN that the Eritrea-Ethiopia boundary commission is in "terminal crisis." He also offered an action plan to break the impasse between the two countries. (UN Integrated Regional Information Network)

"Compared to Kosovo This Assignment Is a Holiday:" Finns Are Now Keeping the Peace in Quiet Eritrea (June 10, 2003)

Finnish peacekeepers comprise the latest force in UNMEE's repeatedly extended mandate. Three years after the end of hostilities on the Ethiopian-Eritrean border, residents wonder how long peacekeepers will remain without resolving the issue. (Helsingin Sanomat)

Chapter With Ethiopia Closed, Isayas Says (April 16, 2003)

The chapter of the two-year border conflict with Ethiopia is closed, says the Eritrean President. The two sides agreed to accept the eventual border ruling as "final and binding." (Allafrica)

The Border Demarcation: Let the Healing Begin (April 4, 2003)

Eritrea and Ethiopia should solve their dispute over the border demarcation by emphasizing their common cultural and ethnic heritage, rather than with divisive politicization. We should start by understanding that border demarcation represents only a legal line to facilitate administration, says the Addis Tribune.

Eritrea & Ethiopia: Expulsion Suffering Lingers (January 30, 2003)

The human rights situation in Ethiopia and Eritrea remains appalling, says Human Right Watch. Arbitrary detentions, mass expulsions, use of torture and other atrocities continue for thousands of residents of both countries.

Eritrea-Ethiopia: Review of Peace Process 2002 (January 17, 2003)

Given their strategic location, Eritrea and Ethiopia play an important role for US military interests. The desire to secure US bases could influence the demarcation process as a consequence. (Irin)

Annan Says Peace Process Progressing Steadily (January 3, 2003)

The latest UN report on the situation in Ethiopia and Eritrea recalls the progress made since a ceasefire was signed in June 2000. "I have no doubt that with the cooperation of the parties the peace process will reach a successful conclusion," says the UN Secretary-General. (Addis Tribune)


Letter to President George W. Bush (December 20, 2002)

While Asmara lobbies the US to use Eritrea's Red Sea ports as military bases in the war against terrorism, Human Rights Watch expresses deep concern about US support of the Eritrean government's gross abuses of civil and political rights. (Human Rights Watch)

Pledge to Ensure Speedy Border Demarcation (December 13, 2002)

According to the UN Force Commander, Ethiopia and Eritrea are committed to ensuring the implementation of the new border demarcation that will take place in May 2003. (IRINnews)

Eritrea- Ethiopian Meetings to Discuss Border Demarcation (December 5, 2002)

The UN peace mission (UNMEE) and military leaders from Ethiopia and Eritrea are meeting to discuss the peace process and the border demarcation. The new international border will be announced by the end of 2003 or the beginning of 2004. (IRINnews)

Eritrea-Ethiopia: Feature - Eritrean Deserters in "Enemy" Land (November 22, 2002)

The UN High Commissioner for Refugees is drawing up emergency plans for a large influx of Eritreans who have recently crossed the border into Ethiopia.(IRINnews)

New UN Force Commander Urges Impartiality (November 4, 2002)

As the UN is accused for both pro-Eritrean and Ethiopean bias, the new UN commander in the UNMEE calls on his troops to remain impartial and keep their role as independent peacekeepers. (

Ethiopia Condemns UN 'Threat' Claims (October 19, 2002)

While the UN says Ethiopia violates some parts of the agreement it signed with UNMEE and threatens peacekeepers, Ethiopia accuses the UN peacekeeping mission of distorting and exaggerating information to the media. (BBC)

Horn Border Dispute Drags On (May 14, 2002)

The Security Council addressed complaints from Ethiopia against the UN commander, Major-General Patrick Cammaert. The Council, calling for the immediate implementation of the ruling on the boundary, expressed its full support and "utmost confidence" in its representative in the region. (Associated Press)

Ethiopia-Eritrean Border Reopens (May 6, 2002)

Ethiopia reopens its border to UN peacekeepers but requests the dismissal of the military commander of the peacekeeping mission, the Dutch Force Commander, Major-General Patrick Cammaert, whom they accuse of political bias towards Eritrea. (BBC News)

Ethiopian Border Closure Under Review (May 2, 2002)

Ethiopia's decision to close the border to the UN prevents peacekeepers from carrying out routine patrols in the region to ensure that both sides continue to respect the ceasefire. According to political analysts, the closed border could be "detrimental" to the whole peace process. (BBC News)

Addis Accused of Violating Border Decision (May 1, 2002)

Eritrea presses the UN to clarify Ethiopia's decision to close the border with Eritrea to UN peacekeepers, "saying the move violates the recent ruling." (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Ethiopia Keeps UN Away from Border (April 27, 2002)

Ethiopia's Ministry of Defense closes the country's borders to the UN Peacekeeping Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) at a time when political tensions are rising between the two countries. The border closure is reportedly linked to "the issue of UNMEE transporting international journalists from the Eritrean capital, Asmara, to Badme, which is currently under Ethiopian administration." (BBC News)

Uncertainty Over Who Is Affected by Border Ruling (April 22, 2002)

The UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) reports on the uncertainty about which communities have been affected by the border ruling in The Hague. The new boundary could mean that some areas change sovereignty, which may lead to increased tensions between the two countries. (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs)

Interview With Boundary Expert Martin Pratt On Border Ruling (April 18, 2002)

Martin Pratt, the head of the International Boundaries Research Unit (IBRU) analyses the Boundary Commission's decision on the Ethiopia-Eritrea border. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Controversy Over Horn Border Ruling (April 17, 2002)

The outcome of the international tribunal decision on the border ruling between Ethiopia and Eritrea triggers a propaganda war between the two rivals. Both sides claim victory over the ruling and control over the small town of Badme -- the ownership of which sparked off one of the bloodiest wars of recent times. (BBC News)

Ethiopia and Eritrea Now at Odds Over Hague Tribunal's Ruling on Disputed Border (April 14, 2002)

Both Ethiopia and Eritrea claim victory following The Hague Tribunal's ruling on the disputed border. The UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, urges the two countries to accept the decision as a milestone in the peace process. (New York Times)

Eritrea-Ethiopia: "New Chapter" in Relations, UN Says (April 11, 2002)

Legwaila Joseph Legwaila, the Head of the UN peacekeeping mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), refers to the impending ruling on the future border between Ethiopia and Eritrea as a "chance for peace for both countries." (Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Interview With Martin Pratt, Expert On Border Disputes (April 10, 2002)

Martin Pratt, the Head of the International Boundaries Research Unit, highlights the difficulties faced by the independent Boundary Commission which will announce its decision on border delimitation between Ethiopia and Eritrea on April 13, 2002. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

EDP Collecting Petitions to Be Delivered to UN (March 8, 2002)

The Ethiopian's Democratic Party (EDP) is collecting signatures from residents of Addis to be submitted to the UN to express disapproval of the Algiers peace agreement signed by Ethiopia and Eritrea. According to the party, the agreement fails to reflect the interests of the Ethiopian people. (Addis Tribune)

Press Conference by the Security Council Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea (February 24, 2002)

The transcript of the press conference by the Chair of the Security Council Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea, Ambassador Ole Peter Kolby of Norway. Questions addressed the future border ruling between the two countries and outstanding issues regarding the Peace Process. (UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea, UNMEE)

Security Council Team Does Little To Quell Horn Tensions (February 25, 2002)

Despite the visit of Security Council members, tensions between Ethiopia and Eritrea persist as both sides await a ruling on the demarcation of their borders. While doubts remain on Ethiopia's commitment to the legal ruling, Eritrea questions the neutrality of the UN Peacekeeping Mission. (Agence France Presse)

Security Council Heads to the Horn (February 21, 2002)

UN Security Council members are on a mission in Addis Ababa to help calm rising tensions between Ethiopia and Eritrea as the international arbitration commission will decide on official borders between the two countries at the end of March 2002. (BBC News)

UN Peace Mission Sees No Problem After Ethiopia-Eritrea Border Ruling (February 12, 2002)

In an interview, Joseph Legwaila, the UN special representative for the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE), argues that although the mission is "dealing with two countries...with two disciplined armies," keeping the peace is not as easy as it seems.(BBC)

Dates Announced for Security Council Mission (February 4, 2002)

The 15 members of the Security Council will travel to Ethiopia and Eritrea in February 2002 to address the peace process and discuss the implementation of the Algiers peace accord. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Move to Prevent Horn War Re-Igniting (January 17, 2002)

The Security Council will send a mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea in February 2002 when a crucial border ruling will be announced by an international commission at The Hague. (BBC News)



Source: Mission Network News

Tension Rising Ahead of Border Decision (December 19, 2001)

UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan is urging Ethiopia and Eritrea to exercise restraint following heightened tensions between the two countries. The rising tensions come as both countries prepare to present their cases for border demarcation to the International Court of Justice in February 2002. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Ethiopia and Eritrea Under Notice From The US (December 2001)

America's war against terrorism may undermine the UN's success in resolving the conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea. (Le Monde Diplomatique)

Eritrea and Ethiopia "Beating The War Drums Again" (November 22, 2001)

Even if the UN insists the border zone between the two countries, recently at war, remains calm, the Ethiopian and Eritrean governments and press keep exchanging allegations and propaganda. War talk on both sides is getting louder, argues Afrol News.

Interview With Unmee Special Representative (November 26, 2001)

The Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary General for the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) is confident that despite continuing poor relations between the two countries, peace would prevail. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

UN Calls For Responsibility in Enforcement of Border Agreement (November 19, 2001)

Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seyoum Mesfin claims that Eritrea is assembling armed forces along the Ethiopian border, rendering another round of fighting "close to inevitable." (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Building Bridges in the Horn (July 10, 2001)

UN peacekeepers have rebuilt a bridge linking Ethiopia and Eritrea. The bridge is a symbolic gesture of reconciliation between the two nations, which are observing a ceasefire. (BBC)

Ethiopia Disputes UN Border (June 29, 2001)

As part of the peace treaty between Ethiopia and Eritrea, both sides agreed to let the UN demarcate the border between them. Now Ethiopia says that it will not accept the new map and calls on the UN to redraw it. (BBC)

UN Peacekeepers Find Solace in Horn of Africa (June 11, 2001)

Unlike peacekeeping missions in West Africa and the Great Lakes region, UN peacekeepers have been relatively successful in maintaining the ceasefire between Ethiopia and Eritrea. (Reuters)

Crucial Horn Appointment Agreed (May 21, 2001)

Ethiopia and Eritrea finally agreed on a mediator to demarcate the border between the two countries. (BBC)

UN Won't Renew Arms Embargo (May 15, 2001)

To encourage the peace process, the Security Council decided not to extend the arms embargo against Eritrea and Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the Council remains alert and will take appropriate measures if the situation deteriorate. (Associated Press)

UN Mission Protests Restrictions On Peacekeepers' Freedom of Movement (May 6, 2001)

UNMEE complains about violation of peacekeepers' freedom of movement which was guaranteed by Ethiopia and Eritrea when they accepted the mission. (UN Press Release)

Eritrea, UN Sign Protocol Agreement on Law Enforcement in Buffer Zone (April 18, 2001)

The government of Eritrea signed a new protocol allowing UNMEE to have "complete freedom of movement" within the Temporary Security Zone and "no interference" in the peacekeepers work. (BBC)

Awful War, Real Peace: The Model of Eritrea (April 6, 2001)

The New York Times compares the nature of the peacekeeping mission in Ethiopia-Eritrea with those in West Africa. Because the peacekeepers are not attacked, their expectations are even higher.

Setback for Horn Peace Deal (March 23, 2001)

Although Ethiopian troops redeployed in the buffer zone, UNMEE still thinks both parties are committed to peace. Meanwhile, the International Court of Justice began to consider the demarcation of the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia as requested by the peace agreement.(BBC)

UNMEE Reiterates Optimism On Ethiopia-Eritrea Peace (March 14, 2001)

After the Security Council extended the mission, UNMEE is optimistic for a final solution of the conflict, even though it might be a long process to achieve peace. (Panafrican News Agency)

Ethiopia Begins Withdrawing Army From Eritrea (February 12, 2001)

Ethiopia began to remove troops from Eritrea, allowing UNMEE's redeployment along the disputed border.(Reuters)

UN Peacekeeping Mission to Attempt to Break Stalemate (January 31, 2001)

As a "good faith" effort to get the peace process moving again, UNMEE proposes that Eritrea and Ethiopia temporarily redeploy their forces on either side of a security zone of UN peacekeepers, until the two countries meet to discuss a definitive settlement. (Associated Press)

Eritrea-Ethiopia: Arms Embargo's Vote Postponed (January 11, 2001)

The US seems to be in a rush to lift the arms embargo against Eritrea and Ethiopia, but has not gain enough support to win the vote in the Council. (UN Integrated Regional Information Network)

Some Leery of Plan to Lift Ban on Arms in Africa Horn (January 8, 2001)

A draft Security Council resolution, opposed by Canada and the Netherlands, proposes ending the arms embargo on Ethiopia and Eritrea. But did the US brokers of the peace accord promise Ethiopia that the embargo would be lifted early? (Reuters)

Horn Peace Setback (January 4, 2001)

As UN peacekeepers continue to arrive in Ethiopia and Eritrea, the two countries argue over plans for the redeployment of their troops. (BBC)


Ethiopia and Eritrea Sign Formal Peace Accord (December 12, 2000)

The OAU-drafted peace agreement commits both sides to a permanent cessation of military activities along the border. Over 4000 UN peacekeepers will be deployed before February to help consolidate peace. (Reuters)

In Horn of Africa, UN's Blue Berets at Last Given a Real Peace to Keep (December 7, 2000)

UNMEE has made progress, with more land corridors expected to be opened this month. Labelled as a success for peacekeeping in Africa, will Eritrea and Ethiopia honour pledges to provide UNMEE with maps to show land mine locations across the territory. (Agence France Presse)

Eritrea: 'Final Deal' with Ethiopia (December 4, 2000)

At last, Ethiopia and Eritrea finalize a peace treaty. Hopefully, this will make UNMEE's job somewhat easier. (BBC)

UN Suggests New Horn Measures (November 22, 2000)

The UN Security Council proposes five ‘confidence-building' measures for Ethiopia and Eritrea to adopt so as to pave the way for a peace treaty: exchange POWs, release and return detained nationals, stop expulsions, produce landmine maps, and open UN corridors. (BBC)

UN to Complete Force Deployment in Horn of Africa Early Next Year (November 17, 2000)

UNMEE's deployment is on schedule, says Kofi Annan, who will visit Ethiopia and Eritrea in early December. (Xinhua)

Rebels Bring Risk to Peacekeeping Mission (November 16, 2000)

UNMEE's commander may profess optimism, but Stratfor reports that the mission will face a number of difficult challenges, including the complications of Ethiopia's withdrawal from Eritrea, and the possibility of attempts by rebels to capture UN supplies.

UN Force Commander Reports Good Cooperation From Ethiopia, Eritrea (November 9, 2000)

Finally, some good news from a UN peacekeeping operation, as Patrick Cammaert, the recently appointed Dutch commander of UNMEE, observes a spirit of cooperation between the Ethiopian and Eritrean governments, and predicts a quick deployment. (Xinhua)

Ethiopia-Eritrea: Talks in Algiers (October 23, 2000)

The quest for a final peace accord begins. But the border dispute between the two countries continues: Eritrea wants the UN to first demarcate the border, while Ethiopia insists on arbitration first. (IRIN)

UN-Led Team Heads to Ethiopia, Eritrea to Review Plight of Internally Displaced (October 16, 2000)

NGO representatives will accompany the UN Special Coordinator on Internal Displacement on the one-week mission. Meanwhile, UNMEE's new Officer-in-Charge begins work in Asmara. (Africa News)

UN Authorises 4,200 Troops for Ethiopia, Eritrea (September 21, 2000)

UNMEE is to have an initial six-month mandate, ending 15 March 2001. (PanAfrican News)

UN Begins Deploying Military Observers in Eritrea and Ethiopia (September 13, 2000)

46 military observers began to arrive in Asmara, Eritrea and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Security Council is expected to take up a resolution next week authorizing a peacekeeping mission. (UN News)

Security Council Backs UN Peacekeeping Force for Horn of Africa (August 14, 2000)

In a follow-up to the June 18 peace accord that put an end to the devastating two-year war between Ethiopia and Eritrea, the Security Council approved the General Secretary's proposals of establishing a "full-scale military force of up to 4,200-strong personnel." This marks the beginning of UNMEE—the United Nations Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea. (Xinhua News Agency)

Security Council Decides to Establish United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea

(July 31, 2000)

In anticipation of a future peacekeeping operation, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1312 (2000) authorizing the deployment of military and civilian observes on the Eritrean and Ethiopian border. (UN Press Release SC/6903)

Eritrea Rules Out Army Cuts in Peace Talks (June 27, 2000)

Although Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to a cease-fire, bickering on the negotiation table continues. As key issues are not being resolved and the power vacuum remaining until UN peacekeeping deployment, new clashes could be provoked. (CNN/Reuters)

Eritrean President Hits Out at International "Indifference" (June 22, 2000)

The Eritrean President lashes out by criticizing that it is "unjustifiable and beyond reason or legality" for the UN Security Council to "penalize us equally with the aggressor [Ethiopia]." (Agence France Presse )

Ethiopia-Eritrea Peace Plan (June 12, 2000)

The text of the peace plan brokered by the Organization of African Unity, calls for the withdrawal of troops to the May 1998 positions, and the deployment of UN peacekeepers to monitor the buffer zones between the two countries until the international border is configured. (BBC)

Negotiating Table New Battleground in Ethiopian-Eritrean Conflict (June 1, 2000)

Eritreans are still suspicious of Ethiopia's intentions after their sudden declaration that the war is over. Yet mediators hope to cease this opportunity to broker a cease-fire and a peace accord. (Associated Press)

Communiqué Of The OAU on The Conflict Between Ethiopia And Ethiopia (May 25, 2000)

The text of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Communiqué is strongly supported by the UN Secretary General and the Security Council in order to end the fighting between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Eritrea has agreed to adopt the communiqué to pressure Ethiopia to agree to a cease-fire. (Africa News Service)

Security Council Special Mission Visit to Eritrea and Ethiopia (May 11, 2000)

The special mission led by US Amb. Holbrooke to Eritrea and Ethiopia aimed to resolve the specifics and implementation of a peace agreement. Although the prospects for immediate peace seem bleak, the mission encouraged efforts to hold talks in order to avoid a disastrous confrontation. (S/2000/413)


Battles Rage in Eritrea (May 16, 2000)

Although the Security Council's three-day ultimatum to stop fighting has expired, the Council is delaying any punitive action. A split in the SC seems imminent over a proposed arms embargo to be placed on the warring countries. (BBC)

UN Team Heads for Horn (May 8, 2000)

The dispatch of seven ambassadors to Ethiopia and Eritrea to revive failed negotiations is indicative of a noticeable shift in Security Council procedure as it is becoming more active in sending delegations into trouble spots. (BBC)

US To Deliver Food Aid to Eritrea (March 27, 2000)

A long pause in aid delivery, which began with an Eritrean confiscation of food, comes to an end with hope that a supplies' corridor to Ethiopia may stay open.(Associated Press)


Eritrea Says 200 Ethiopians Die in Fighting (February 23, 2000)

As Reuters reports thousands of troops still line the disputed territory and the war may be about to heat up as a recent battle has claimed a reported 200 Ethiopian plus an unknown number of Eritrean lives putting an end to the lull.


Peace Deal May Be Near for Ethiopia and Eritrea (August 23, 1999)

Ethiopia and Eritrea agree on much of a plan, calling for a cease-fire, drafted by the Organization for African Unity and pushed by the US and the UN. "Meanwhile, question is especially tricky here along the Badme plain, where the war began and which both sides claim as their own." (New York Times)

Eritrea Accepts OAU Plan to End Horn War (August 8, 1999)

Reuters article reporting that Eritrea signed the peace plan on the conflict with Ethiopia while pledging full cooperation with the OAU and the UN for its implementation.

'Great Progress' in Ethiopia-Eritrea Talks (July 26, 1999)

Agence France-Presse article on the American envoy to the conflict region of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Reports optimism about the peace process even though the two countries have not implemented the OAU peace proposal.

Border a Geographer's Nightmare (July 23, 1999)

BBC Online article about the border between Ethiopia and Eritrea as a geographer's nightmare which became a reality as soon as the neighbours' once-friendly relationship turned sour.

Ethiopia Accepts OAU Peace Proposal (July 22, 1999)

According to this Panafrican News Agency article, the Ethiopian cabinet and the ruling party accepted the OAU framework agreement but issued statements expressing doubt over Eritrea's commitment to peace.

Brothers Divided by a 'Crazy' War (July 16, 1999)

The Johannesburg Mail&Guardian writes that "there is little hope of an end to the war between Eritrea and Ethiopia." Because of the deep distrust between the two sides, the willingness to fight, and the lack of outrage over the war, "prospects for peace are slender."

Ethiopia, Eritrea Interpret Peace Deal Differently (July 15, 1999)

According to this article from CNN Online, peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea is still uncertain as both sides come up with different interpretations of the OAU "framework agreement" and accuse each other of failing to stick to the agreed terms.

Eritrea Accepts OAU Modalities to End War With Ethiopia (July 15, 1999)

Panafrican News Agency article on Eritrea's announcement to adhere to the OAU peace agreement to end the devestating border war with its neighbor Ethiopia.

Ethiopia-Eritrea Agreement Major Achievement (July 14, 1999)

African leaders at the OAU summit in Algeria hailed the peace agreement between Ethiopia and Eritrea as a significant step toward peace on the African continent. But the finger-pointing between the leaders of Ethiopia and Eritrea continues. (CNN Online / Associated Press)

Ethiopia Unhappy with UN's Outlook on Border War (July 1, 1999)

In a letter addressed to the president of the UN Security Council, the Ethiopian foreign minister accused the UN of failing to acknowledge Eritrea's aggression against his country. (Panafrican News Agency)

Eritrea-Ethiopia War Heats Up (June 28, 1999)

New York Times article citing how differing interpretations of the pending peace agreement between these two countries has led to more killings.

UN Calls for Ethiopia-Eritrea Cease fire (June 24, 1999)

BBC Online article on the ceasefire proposal by the Organization of African Unity, endorsed by the Security Council, but accepted only in principle by Ethiopia and Eritrea.

War in Africa - Biggest Conflict in the World (June 22, 1999)

Article from the London Independent about the devestating conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia that is taking place "away from the gaze of most of the world's media."

End Fighting, UN Council Tells Ethiopia and Eritrea (February 28, 1999)

The fighting continues despite a UN Security Council resolution demanding an immediate cease-fire and a halt to arms sales to both countries.

UN Calls For Cease-Fire to Stop 'Disaster' in Horn of Africa (February 10, 1999)

A mandatory UN arms embargo is likely to be placed on Eritrea and Ethiopia if the fighting doesn't end soon.

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