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Oil-for-Food Programme - Archived Articles


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Iraqi Food Security in Hands of Occupying Powers (December 2, 2003)

The Coalitional Provisional Authority does not have an organized substitute for the Oil for Food Programme that ended on November 21, 2003. Washington has apparently felt that relevant experience and expertise are not necessary. (Middle East Research and Information Project)

Oil for Food: A Great Experiment End (November 17, 2003)

The Oil for Food program, launched in December 1996, was used to exchange Iraqi petroleum for food, medicine and other civilian goods. On November 21, 2003, the program is discontinued. (UN Wire)

Money Transferred to Iraqi Fund without UN Approval (November 11, 2003)

The CPA has not accounted for a $1 billion transfer from the UN escrow account to the Development Fund for Iraq (DFI) in June. Nonetheless, the UN has transferred a second billion in October without explicit Security Council approval. The UN Secretariat justifies the move by arguing that all Oil-for-Food money will be transferred anyway to the DFI after the Programme ends on November 21, 2003. (Middle East Online)

UN Concerned as Iraq Oil-for-Food Programme Nears End (October 30, 2003)

With the end of the Oil-for-Food Programme approaching, France, Germany and Russia have expressed concern about the fate of contracts and deliveries that the UN cannot process before the handover of the Programme to the Coalition Provisional Authority. (Associated Press)

UN Envoy Says Oil-For-Food Program Difficult to Phase Out (October 29, 2003)

Head of Office for the Iraq Programme Benon Sevan outlines the difficulties of handing over the Oil-for-Food Programme to the Coalition Provisional Authority, due to the reduction of UN personnel in Iraq and the late deployment of CPA counterparts. (Xinhuanet)

US Has No Legitimate Right to Iraqi Oil and Lifting of Sanctions Must Wait (April 20, 2003)

Eight Middle Eastern states made a joint statement on post-war Iraq, declaring that the US has no right to exploit its oil and that the Iraqi people should administer their own country. (Al Jazeera)

UN Revives Oil-For-Food Scheme (March 28, 2003)

The UN agrees to restart the oil-for-food program to provide medicine and food for the Iraqi people. John Negroponte, the US ambassador to the UN, walked out during a Security Council debate as Iraq condemned US aggression. (Sydney Morning Herald)

US, Britain plan for Iraqi Oil Money to Be Spent on Humanitarian Relief (March 19, 2003)

The US and UK are drafting a plan to use Iraqi oil proceeds to pay for humanitarian relief supplies during the war. To avoid any further split in the Security Council, Washington and London want to turn over the responsibility for the Oil-for-Food Programme to Kofi Annan. (Associated Press)



State of the World's Children 2003 (December, 2002)

This UNICEF report shows that child mortality has nearly tripled in Iraq since 1990. Iraq's growing mortality rate for children under age 5 contrasts the two decades of improving living standards and social progress prior to 1991 when the economic sanctions against Iraq were first introduced.


Humanitarian NGO condemns further politicisation of "oil for food" (December 5, 2002)

Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq (CASI) accuses the US government of "playing politics with the UN's humanitarian efforts" and warns that the politicization of Iraq's Oil-for-Food program exacerbates the humanitarian crisis in Iraq.

UN Unanimously OKs Iraq Aid Extension (December 4, 2002)

The Security Council agrees to extend the Oil-for-Food program for six months. The new resolution represents a compromise between the US, which wants to add about 50 items to the list of banned goods, and the rest of the Council, led by Russia, which wanted to renew the program for the usual term. (Associated Press)

Bush Government for Tighter Control (November 26, 2002)

The US administration blocks a six-month extension of the UN Oil-for-Program, arguing that Iraq should not buy items that could be used in a war, such as antidotes for nerve gas. The US also tries to fix the price of Iraqi oil, which determines funding for the program. (Hindu)

Malnutrition in Iraq - What the New UNICEF Study Shows (November 22, 2002)

Commondreams analyses the latest UNICEF report on malnutrition in Iraq and the improved health status among Iraqi children. The article argues that despite positive trends, the future looks grim due to a multi-billion dollar shortfall in the money available for the Oil-for-Food program and the threat of war.

Malnutrition Down by Half Among Iraqi Children (November 22, 2002)

UNICEF attributes falling levels of malnutrition to the UN lifting of a cap on Iraqi oil sales, continuing expenditure on food within the Oil-for-Food program, success of nutrition screening, and the ending of a severe drought. Despite improvements, one million children under five still suffer from chronic malnutrition. (UNICEF)

Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Paragraphs 7 and 8 of Security Council Resolution 1409 (November 12, 2002)

The UN's Oil-for-Food program suffers from acute financial problems. A growing shortfall resulting from a substantial reduction in Iraqi oil exports negatively affects the program. In this report, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan appeals to all concerned "to spare no effort in meeting the dire humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people." (United Nations)

UN Sanctions Hurting Iraq Children (November 4, 2002)

UN sanctions have an ongoing disastrous effect on the Iraqi population and especially on children. According to both UN and Iraqi sources, since the sanctions were introduced, about "1.6 million Iraqi children have died, up to seven times more than in the same period before the sanctions." (Associated Press)

Why Another War? (October, 2002)

This primer by the Middle East Research and Information Project (MERIP) gives background information on the Iraq crisis. It analyzes how sanctions have affected the Iraqi people, how Saddam has managed to stay in power, and the driving forces behind the Bush administration's push for regime change.

UN Rings Alarm Bells On Struggling Iraq Humanitarian Program (October 31, 2002)

Iraq's oil exports continue to dwindle, creating a growing shortfall in the revenue of the Oil-for-Food program, and leading to a "very grave" humanitarian situation in Iraq. The downturn derives from the system of retroactive pricing, halts in Iraq's oil exports, and US threats of war on Iraq. (Agence France-Presse)

Save the Children (UK) Iraq Briefing Memo (October 18, 2002)

Save the Children (UK) summarizes recent data on the humanitarian conditions in Iraq based on several UN sources. The memo includes, among other things, estimates of bulk food stocks, the adequacy of "Oil-for-Food" ration, rates of communicable diseases, and child nutrition.

The Humanitarian Implications of Military Action against Iraq (September 4, 2002)

Save the Children UK expresses concerns about a possible military intervention against Baghdad, which would gravely exacerbate the humanitarian crisis created by the long-lasting sanctions in Iraq.

Trading Firms Accuse UN Of Purposely Depressing Iraqi Oil Sales (August 12, 2002)

Major oil trading firms blame the UN sanctions committee for minimizing Iraqi oil sales, setting uncompetitive prices and increasing shortfalls in funds, resulting in serious consequences for the humanitarian situation in Iraq. (Mees)

Iraq-UN Oil Price Dispute Bankrupts UN Oil-for-Food Plan (May 29, 2002)

The Iraqi oil pricing policy, backed by the US and UK, has resulted in an average reduction in oil exports of 500,000 barrels a day. Such a high cost threatens to bankrupt the oil-for-food program. (Reuters)

UN Pressured on Iraq Aid Shortfall (May 31, 2002)

According to the US and UK, the pricing policy on Iraqi oil prevents Iraq from applying illegal surcharges and reduces oil smuggling. However, Iraqi oil exports have declined by about 25% costing the Oil-for-Food program an estimated $1.2 billion. (Associated Press)

Iraq Formally Agrees to UN Program (May 30, 2002)

Iraq has agreed to a six-month extension of the UN oil-for-food program. However, the pricing policy imposed by the US and UK has resulted in a decline in Iraqi oil exports, which in turn jeopardizes the success of the oil-for-food program. (Associated Press)

Sanctions Renewed on Iraq (May 14, 2002)

The Security Council unanimously passed a resolution revising the sanctions system against Baghdad. MERIP critically comments on the move towards so-called "smarter sanctions" in the light of the threat of military action against Iraq. ()

UN Agrees New Iraq Sanctions Regime (May 7, 2002)

Constituting the biggest change since the introduction of the Oil-for-Food program in 1996, the UN Security Council has agreed to limit import restrictions for Iraq to a list of 160 pages sensitive goods. (BBC)

US and Russia Agree to Overhaul Sanctions on Iraq (March 29, 2002)

Washington and Moscow finally agree on a new "goods review list" of products that "cannot be sold to Iraq without Security Council approval." The new list would revamp the oil-for-food program if accepted by the Security Council. (Washington Post)

Iraq Situation Analysis (February, 2002)

This report, prepared by UNICEF and the government of Iraq, analyzes the situation of women and children in Iraq based on the principles of human rights. It looks at the socio-economic development and political context in the country as well as different causes to Iraq's humanitarian situation.

Trade With Iraq Under UN Sanctions Fraught With Hurdles (February 23, 2002)

Merchants trading with Iraq under the Oil-for-Food program face increasing barriers to trade because of an inefficient UN sanctions regime riddled with heavy bureaucracy. (Gulf News)

Washington Blocks $5 billion Supplies to Iraq (February 21, 2002)

The UN office of the Iraq program reports that the US has put "on hold" almost $5 billion worth of humanitarian supplies to Iraq. (Reuters)

UN Suspends 52 New Oil-for-Food Contracts, Says Baghdad (February 13, 2002)

The UN panel enforcing the Iraqi embargo suspends 52 contracts concluded earlier between the Iraqi government and foreign suppliers under the provisions of the oil-for-food program. The new suspensions followed a request by the US and UK representatives. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)

UN Official: Iraq Program Needs Urgent Attention (February 10, 2002)

Benon Sevan, head of the UN "oil-for-food" program completes his visit of Iraq with "very urgent" recommendations for the Security Council. The Council's retroactive pricing policy and "increased number of holds placed on vendor contracts are having serious effects on the program's success." (CNN)

US, Russia Seek Deal On "Smart" Iraq Sanctions (February 6, 2002)

The US and Russia hold talks to revise UN sanctions against Iraq. Discussions address the need to ease the flow of food and medicines while restricting Baghdad's access to arms. (Reuters)

UN "Oil-for-Food" Chief Ends Tour of Iraqi Kurdistan (January 29, 2002)

The head of the UN "oil-for-food" program in Iraq, Benon Sevan, examines ways to accelerate the program and make it more effective. Sevan assessed the humanitarian situation in Iraqi Kurdistan and will continue discussions with Iraqi officials. (Agence France Presse)

Sanction Deal Benefits Only UN: Iraq (January 17, 2002)

Iraq criticizes the UN oil-for-food program for allegedly benefiting the UN only. The regime also accuses the US and Britain of "blocking thousands of contracts, worth more than $7 billion, including medicines and supplies for food and sanitation." (Reuters)

US Quiet on Iraq Inspections (January 11, 2002)

Despite President Bush's demand last month that Iraq allow a return of weapons inspectors, the US has chosen instead to focus its efforts on reaching an agreement in the Security Council to revamp sanctions. (Washington Post)

UN Concern at Blocked Iraq Deals (January 9, 2002)

The executive director of Iraq's Oil-for-food program, Benon Sevan, expressed concern at the rising number of blocked contracts for the sale of supplies intended for humanitarian and industrial uses. The blocked contracts total 5 billion, with 80% of the hold-ups attributable to US action. (BBC News)

UN Sanctions Panel Seeks Measures in Response to Illegal Oil Smuggling (January 8, 2002)

The "661 committee", which monitors sanctions on Iraq, recommended a new series of measures to address the ongoing problem of the illegal smuggling of Iraqi oil. (UNNews Service)

Letter from the Executive Director Office of the Iraq Programme (OIP) (January 7, 2002)

In this letter to the Chairman of the Sanctions Committee, Executive Director of the OIP Benon Sevan expresses his concern with the rising level of holds, which lessen the effectiveness and efficiency of the Oil-for-Food program. (Office of the Iraq Programme)



How the Sanctions Hurt Iraq (August 2, 2001)

This article frames the "smart sanctions" debate in a historical context and shows why the US-UK proposed alterations to the existing sanctions regime would not help Iraq recover from eleven years of devastation. (MERIP)

Smart Sanctions: Rebuilding Consensus or Maintaining Conflict? (June 28, 2001)

Based on recent Council debates, it is unlikely that the US will build sufficient consensus to revamp the sanctions regime against Iraq. However, the US is deeply dissatisfied with the status quo. This analysis suggests this dissatisfaction coupled with the unlikelihood of building a consensus on the Council may induce the US to resort to unilateral measures. (MERIP)

UN Extends Iraq Oil-for-Food Deal (December 3, 2001)

The Security Council has adopted a new resolution on Iraq's oil-for-food program which provides a revised list of prohibited goods. However, the resolution does not address the question of UN arms inspectors' return to Iraq. (Moscow Times)

Baghdad: UN Program Faces 1.63-billion-dollar Shortfall (November 6, 2001)

With the price of Iraqi oil falling, the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq faces a loss of about 1.63 billion dollars in the current five-month phase. (World Oil Industry News)

Iraq Expels Five UN Officials; UN Withdraws Them (September 4, 2001)

Stating national security concern, Iraq has expelled five UN officials from the Oil-for-Food Program. But the Security Council understands this action as a way of protesting against the entire UN operation in Iraq. (Reuters)

Iraq Says UN Sanctions Crumbling After 11 Years (August 7, 2001)

Baghdad is urging the UN to lift the 11 year-old sanctions regime against Iraq. The UN's oil-for-food programme helps alleviate some of the suffering, but it is not a substitute for full economic activity. (Reuters)

The Secret Behind the Sanctions (August 1, 2001)

Thomas Nagy contends that the US knew sanctions had the capacity to devastate the water treatment system of Iraq. It also knew what the consequences would be: increased outbreaks of disease and high rates of child mortality. (Progressive)

Iraq Says US, Britain Blocking More Imports (July 30, 2001)

Iraq has accused the US and the UK of preventing it from buying badly needed goods under the UN oil-for-food program, even as they sought to streamline the program to ease its burden on the Iraqi people. (Reuters)

Iraq Promises Oil Contracts in Exchange for Support in UN (July 30, 2001)

Iraq has announced that it will repay Russia for its support against smart sanctions on the UN Security Council. The payment will come in the form of lucrative oil contracts. (Associated Press)

UK Envoy Fails to Justify Iraq Sanctions (July 28, 2001)

Hans von Sponeck, a former UN Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq, accuses the US and UK of duplicity in their defense of the Oil-for-Food Program. He also argues that the US-UK proposed smart sanctions would "choke legitimate civilian trade and humanitarian assistance" in Iraq. (Irish Times)

Iraq Gives Priority to Russia, Syria in Import Contracts (July 16, 2001)

As an apparent reward for opposing the US/UK plan to revamp the sanctions regime against Iraq, Saddam Hussein will give priority to Russia and Syria in import contracts under the UN oil-for-food programme. France previously won the lion's share of deals, but it supported the US/UK proposal. (Jordan Times)

The UN Fails to Get Smart (July 14, 2001)

This Japan Times editorial affirms the widely held belief that everyone--except Saddam Hussein--lost when the Security Council extended the status quo "dumb sanctions" against Iraq. However, the article fails to acknowledge that the US/UK plan for "smart sanctions" would do little to help Iraq reconstruct its civil society.

History of Missed Opportunities (July 13, 2001)

Instead of blasting China and France for supporting the US/UK draft resolution, Iraq should begin a constructive dialogue with its sympathizers within the Security Council. (Jordan Times

Iraq, UN Extend Oil-for-Food Programme (July 10, 2001)

The UN and Iraq signed an agreement extending the oil-for-food program for an additional five months. For months, the Security Council discussed altering the conditions of the program to allow more civilian goods into Iraq, but disagreement among P-5 members prevented a new resolution from materializing. (Reuters)

Trade Deal Won Chinese Support of US Policy on Iraq (July 6, 2001)

The Bush administration won Chinese support for the US/UK plan to overhaul sanctions against Iraq by releasing more than $80 million in frozen Chinese business deals with Iraq last month. Although US officials argue that there was no "quid pro quo," the deal smacks of bribery. (Washington Post)

Iraq Wins at UN but Loses Pair of Envoys (July 5, 2001)

Baghdad may have scored a victory in forcing the US and UK to abandon their sanctions overhaul plan, but the defection of two senior diplomats is a clear defeat for Saddam Hussein in his propaganda war with the West. (Los Angeles Times)

Iraq Uses Its Buying Power As Leverage (July 3, 2001)

An article by the Washington Post suggests that the opposition toward the US/UK proposal for "smarter sanctions" did not stem from sympathy for Iraqi civilians, but rather from ulterior motives, such as trade and oil contracts. The article focuses on France's pending contracts with Iraq. France was one of the most vocal critics of the US/UK plan.

Iraq 'Smart Sanctions' Plan Dropped at UN (July 3, 2001)

In stark contrast to pro-US publications, the Independent suggests that the US/UK plan to revamp sanctions against Iraq failed because it did not address the fundamental issue of how sanctions could be lifted.

Iraq Wins Sanctions Battle? (July 2, 2001)

The UN's inability to agree on a new sanctions regime marks a victory for Baghdad. In addition to winning the propaganda battle, Iraq effectively exploited its neighbors' oil dependency to gain their support. (BBC)

UN Spends More on Sniffer Dogs Than People, Says Iraq (June 29, 2001)

In a riveting speech before the Security Council, Iraqi representative Riyadh Al Qaysi lambasted the UN for corruption and for spending more money on sniffer dogs than on the people of Iraq. The Iraqi delegate had flown to New York to try to convince the Council to oppose to US-UK plan to revamp sanctions against his country. (Reuters)

UN Deadlock Over Iraq Sanctions (June 27, 2001)

The sanctions regime against Iraq also hurts Iraq's neighboring countries—many of whom were America's allies during the Gulf War. Jordan finds itself in a particularly sticky situation: It wants to remain on friendly terms with the US, but is economically dependent on Iraqi oil. (Guardian)

Jordan First to Lose When ‘Smart' Sanctions Hit Iraq (June 26, 2001)

A public Security Council debate on Iraq failed to produce any kind of consensus among P-5 members. Russia introduced a new draft resolution delineating how sanctions could be lifted. The UK and US summarily dismissed the draft. (BBC)

Firm's Iraq Deals Greater Than Cheney Has Said (June 23, 2001)

Ironically, the Vice-President of the nation most adamantly in favor of sanctions against Iraq engaged in "sanctions busting" only a year ago. US Vice-President Richard B. Cheney acknowledged that the oil company he headed did business with Iraq during his tenure as CEO. (Washington Post)

UN Okays Russia Call for Debate on Iraq (June 21, 2001)

For the first time since it imposed sanctions on Iraq, the Council will hold a public meeting to discuss the UK and French proposals to revamp the embargo. The announcement comes a day after Russian Ambassador Sergey Lavrov requested the meeting. (Reuters)

Russia Seeks Open UN Meeting on Iraq (June 20, 2001)

Moscow wants the Council to discuss the Iraq sanctions overhaul in public meetings next week. Until now, all discussions about Iraq have been held under a shroud of secrecy in private consultations. (Reuters)

Haggling Delays New Trade Embargo Against Saddam (June 19, 2001)

This report suggests that there is nothing that the US can do to prevent Saddam Hussein from rebuilding his weapons of mass destruction, regardless whether the Security Council implements "smart sanctions." (Guardian)

UN Sanctions Didn't Stop Iraq From Buying Weapons (June 18, 2001)

In a suspiciously-timed article, the New York Times reveals the findings of a conservative think-tank, which argues that the 11-year-old sanctions regime against Iraq did not prevent Saddam Hussein from building up his arsenal of weapons. The report comes as the Council considers easing sanctions against Iraq.

Iraq Again Warns Turkey Against ‘Smart' Sanctions (June 12, 2001)

Worried that the Security Council is nearing a resolution to revitalize sanctions against his country, Saddam Hussein is encouraging his allies to ignore the UN's decision. (Jordan Times)

Smart Diplomacy Yields a Sensible Plan for Iraq (June 11, 2001)

This editorial supports the current US-UK proposal for smart sanctions, arguing that they will punish Saddam Hussein and the regime instead of the Iraqi people. (International Herald Tribune)

New UN Plan Lets Foreigners Render Services in Iraq (June 11, 2001)

The US and UK have altered their earlier proposal for revised sanctions against Iraq. The new resolution would allow foreign companies to provide services for civilian projects in Iraq. (Reuters)

Iraq Defiant (June 6, 2001)

An agreement on a revamped sanctions resolution will not end debate on penalties against Iraq, nor will it thwart Baghdad's efforts to produce weapons of mass destruction. (Al-Ahram)

UN Experts Watch Clock on Iraqi Sanctions Revamp (June 5, 2001)

Because of the US-UK insistence that Iraq be barred from buying goods that have even a remote military use, the Security Council will have a difficult time agreeing on a revised sanctions resolution. (Reuters)

Iraq Halts Oil Exports in Protest of "Smart" Sanctions (June 4, 2001)

Iraq argues that the renewal of the oil-for-food program should not be linked to the "US-British project" to revitalize sanctions against Iraq. In protest, the Baghdad government has halted oil exports. (Agence France Presse)

Will "Smart" Sanctions Work? (June 2, 2001)

Not only will the US proposal of so-called "smarter sanctions" be difficult to implement, but they will also do little to alleviate the suffering of Iraq's population or finish the job of destroying weapons of mass destruction. (BBC)

Security Council Extends Iraq Oil-for-Food Program (June 1, 2001)

The UN Security Council extended the oil-for-food program for only 30 days, rather than 6 months, giving it more time to reconsider the US-UK plan to restructure sanctions on Iraq. (Associated Press)

Iraq Ready to Renew Oil-for-Food Program If It Remains Unchanged (May 31, 2001)

Iraq says that it will accept the renewal of the UN oil-for-food programme, but warns that it will halt all oil exports if the Security Council also renews sanctions. (Agence France-Presse)

US and Britain To Stop Kickbacks on Iraqi Oil (March 11, 2001)

The US and UK want to set up a UN panel to monitor malfeasance in the Oil-for-Food program, an idea they will bring next week in the Security Council's Iraqi sanctions committee.(Reuters)

UN Wants Civilian Imports to Iraq to Flow Freely (March 9, 2001)

Benon Sevan, the director of the UN humanitarian program for Iraq, suggested that non-military articles should be sent to Iraq without the approval of the Security Council. Why is the US not so keen on the proposal?(Reuters)

UN Warns on Iraqi Oil Exports (March 7, 2001)

Kofi Annan calls on Iraq and the Security Council to stop inserting politics into the oil-for-food program. (Guardian)

Iraq Lagging in Buying Food, Medicine for Needy, UN Complains (February 01, 2001)

In a letter to the Security Council's Iraq Sanctions Committee, the head of the UN humanitarian program expresses his concern about the slowdown in Iraqi participation in the Oil-For–Food program. (USINFO)


UN Panel Tells Iraqi Oil Lifters Not to Pay Surcharge (December 16, 2000)

The Security Council's Iraq sanctions committee tells buyers in no uncertain terms that they are not to pay surcharges on Iraqi oil. (Reuters)

Iraq 'Resumes' Oil Exports (December 13, 2000)

Baghdad is exporting oil again, but the controversy over their per-barrel surcharge is not over yet. In fact, an oil industry newsletter has reported that several companies have been paying Iraq 10 extra cents per barrel since October 2000. (BBC)

Iraq Oil Stays on Hold, Baghdad Wants Surcharge (December 11, 2000)

Baghdad agrees to the UN's proposed renewal of the oil-for-food program, but the pricing dispute quickly starts up again. Iraq is again asking companies to pay a surcharge directly into an Iraqi bank account, and the UN says they won't let it happen. (Reuters)

Security Council Approves Six-Month Extension of Iraq Humanitarian Program (December 6, 2000)

Phase IX of the oil-for-food program will see a partial liberalization of the regime. Electricity and housing supplies contracts will get fast-track approval, and some revenue will be returned to Iraq as cash, mostly to spend on oil industry infrastructure. (Associated Press)

Iraq Oil-for-Food Deal Debated (December 5, 2000)

The director of the oil-for-food program has told the Security Council that it is time to make changes to the regime. But the Security Council, which is currently discussing the terms of the program's renewal, is straining to agree on the nature of those changes. (News24)

Iraq Says it is Free to Choose its Oil Prices (December 3, 2000)

Baghdad says that it will impose sanctions of its own against companies and countries selling its oil to ‘hostile' states. Meanwhile, Kofi Annan criticizes both Iraq and the US in his report to the Security Council on Iraq sanctions. (Reuters)

Oil Exports: The Iraqi Statement (December 1, 2000)

An announcement on Iraqi radio about the suspension of oil exports. (BBC/Iraqi radio)

Iraq Halts Oil Exports (December 1, 2000)

Baghdad blames its dispute with the UN over the oil-for-food program for the stoppage. Moreover, according to reports, Iraq has enough funds from previous sales of oil to sustain the freeze for some time. (BBC)

Iraq Set to Suspend Oil Exports in Revenue Dispute With UN (November 27, 2000)

Iraq wants international oil companies to pay premiums into an account outside UN auspices. The UN sanctions committee says they won't let this happen. The battle could lead Iraq to suspend its oil exports in protest. (Agence France Presse)

Iraq to Ask UN to Include Palestine in Oil-for-Food Deal (November 26, 2000)

Baghdad says that they want revenue from Iraqi oil to provide food and medicine not only for the Iraqi people, but also for "their Palestinian brothers". With such a proposal, Iraq's political capital may soar even higher among the Arab states. (Xinhua)

Bill Clinton on Sanctions Against Iraq (November 8, 2000)

Interviewed by Amy Goodman of Democracy Now, Clinton justifies the sanctions against Iraq, blaming only Saddam Hussein for the effects of the sanctions on the Iraqi people. Following the interview is a rebuttal from EPIC, pointing out errors in Clinton's statements and fundamental flaws in the Oil-for-Food program.

UK Briefing on Iraq (October 23, 2000)

According to UK Minister Peter Hain, Saddam has built a luxury resort complex for his cronies and imports 38,000 bottles of whisky per month, and Hain blames only Saddam's abuse of the oil-for-food program, as starving the civilian population. (UK Foreign Office)

Food Aid Essential for Iraqis (October 20, 2000)

The predecessors of Oil-for-food program administrator Mr. Myat, quit in protest against what they described as the suffering that sanctions inflicted on the Iraqi people. Mr. Myat however has claimed the program to be ranked among the world's best, and stated that if the program foundered, Iraqis would have nothing to fall back on. (New York Times)

Running for Cover: The US, World Oil Markets and Iraq (September 28, 2000)

The Iraqi regime is very concerned about the effect of reparations on its revenue base, particularly with a decision by the UN Compensation Commission to accept a Kuwaiti claim for $15.9 billion for damage to oil fields. Also, will Iraq suspend oil exports to try to improve the terms of the oil-for-food program? (MERIP)

P5 Reach Deal on Iraq Compensation (September 27, 2000)

The P5 make the decisions, but the growing disagreement in the whole Council over sanctions against Iraq seems to be pressurizing small increments of change in an attempt to address the human suffering in Iraq.(Xinhua News Agency )

Iraq Earns Another 481 Million Dollars in UN "Oil-for-Food" Program (September 26, 2000)

The total value of contracts on hold in all sectors in the program has reached 2 billion. The Sanctions Committee has approved one contract for the sale of oil. (Xinhua News Agency)

Pickering Hits Iraq's Handling of the Oil-For-Food Program (September 19, 2000)

US Undersecretary for State, James Pickering, answers questions on sanctions in Iraq, and attempts to justify American intransigence on the sanctions issue. (US Department of State)

"Paper of Record" Distorts Record on Iraq Sanctions (September 13, 2000)

FAIR (Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting) sharply criticizes New York Time's Crossette's article on Iraq (shown below). They rightly say "this article is only the latest example of Crossette's alarming willingness to repeat increasingly shrill-- and largely discredited-- charges from the US State Department that the Iraqi government is sabotaging the UN's relief work.

Iraq Won't Let Outside Experts Assess Sanctions' Impact (September 12, 2000)

Blaming Iraq for not allowing yet another UN 'expert' inspection mission, as this article from the New York Times does, is not surprising. A stalemate seems to be emerging with the Oil-for-food program, and perhaps the Security Council will have to change its sanctions policy to move the pawns.

Dispute Arises on Iraqi Debt for Oil Losses by Kuwaitis (August 23, 2000)

Three powerful nations, US, Russia, and France, clash over the Iraqi multi-billion debt to Kuwait. The New York Times discusses this situation in which all three sides are pursuing their own interests.

UN Demands Improved Efficiency of Oil-for-Food Scheme (August 17, 2000)

Benon Sevan , Executive Director of the UN Office of the Iraq Program stresses the need for a better implementation of the now infamous Oil-for-Food program. (UN News)

Iraq Claim on Blocked Import Contracts at Odds with UN Data (August 3, 2000)

The Iraq Trade Minister blasted the US and the UK for withholding US$10 billion worth of contracts for the UN's "oil-for-food" program. Yet UN says figures show US$ 1.6 billion on hold, and claims that most delays are caused by the Iraq contractors, not the UN. (Agence France Presse)

UN Oil-for-Food Chief Visits Iraq After Complaints Over Aid Programme (August 1, 2000)

Even with recent improvements in oil exports in Iraq, the UN oil-for-food program is not a substitute for the resumption of normal economic activity, says Benon Sevan, the UN oil-for-food program director visiting Iraq. (Agence France Presse)

High Oil Prices Fatten Iraqi Humanitarian Aid Fund (July 24, 2000)

US $ 7 billion will be channeled for buying humanitarian goods in Iraq. Although this is the largest budget allocation, 30% of it must go to the UN and compensation for the Kuwaiti invastion. (CNN)

Death for Oil (July 19, 2000)

An interview with Dennis Halliday, former head of the humanitarian mission in Iraq. One of the harshest critics against the Iraqi sanctions, he argues that it is a "genocide" against the country, and the oil-for-food program is barely keeping the people alive. (Al-Ahram Weekly / )

Ten Years of Sanctions Against Iraq have "Completely Failed": von Sponeck (July 18, 2000)

"We have to sit with the Iraqis at the same table" and find a new approach other than sanctions, says Hans von Sponeck, the former UN humanitarian aid coordinator in Iraq. (Agence France Presse )

UN Urged to Hold Meeting on Iraq's Humanitarian Status (July 12, 2000)

An olive branch from Iraq? The Iraqi National Assembly Speaker sent a letter to the UN Secretary General to consider holding a meeting in New York, which invites all representatives of UN organizations in Iraq to discuss the humanitarian situation. ( Xinhua)

Iraq Slams UN Sanctions Committee for Shelving 1,989 Contracts (July 9, 2000)

Iraq bashed the US and UK government's "hostile policy" for shelving contracts for UN's humanitarian oil-for-food program. This is the first time Iraq summarized the total number of contracts shelved by the UN Sanctions Committee. (Xinhua)

Iraq Accepts Renewal of UN Oil-for-Food Programme (June 20, 2000)

Contrary to the heated debate that ensued in the UN Security Council, Iraq says it is only a "routine procedure" to accept the renewal of the oil-for-food program. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)

Iraq Accuses US, Britain of Politicizing Oil-for-Food Programme (June 20, 2000)

In a letter to the UN Secretary General, the Iraq Foreign Minister urged the UN Security Council to reconsider the amount of surplus oil-for-food program revenues that can be allocated to purchasing humanitarian goods. (BBC / Republic of Iraq Radio)

Iraqi Reparations Could Take a Century to Pay (June 16, 2000)

Paying off the Gulf War reparations is another big headache for Iraqi citizens. Analysts say that at the current rate of Iraq oil sales, Iraq could still be paying for the invasion of Kuwait in the year 2125! (The Guardian - London)

UN Council Seeks Study of Iraqi Situation (June 9, 2000)

Some members of the UN Security Council hope that the expert panel's study, which concerns the humanitarian situation in Iraq, would be a persuasive tool to force the US to agree to ease the sanctions against Iraq. (Washington Post )

Iraqi Trade Minister Says UN Profiting from Iraqi Oil (June 8, 2000)

The Iraqi Trade Minister blasted the UN for transforming the humanitarian oil-for-food program into an "oil-for-UN gains" program. (Agence France Presse )

Iraq Slams UN Ahead of Renewal of Oil-for-Food Programme (June 8, 2000)

Iraq criticized the UN oil-for-food program and other UN Iraq resolutions as reflecting the US's aggressive intentions to continue the "genocidal" embargo on the Iraqi citizens. Iraq also dismissed the UN Secretary General's satisfaction with the new UN inspection team as "completely incomprehensible. " (Agence France Presse )

British, French Issue Dueling Proposals on Iraq Humanitarian Program (June 2, 2000)

Britain and France's rivaling draft resolutions, which concern Iraq's oil-for-food program, re-emphasize the deep-rooted disagreements over the questions of Iraq sanctions in the UN Security Council. ( Associated Press )

Annan Exhorts UN Council on 'Oil for Food' for Iraqis (March 25, 2000)

Secretary General Annan raises questions about UN policy on Iraq as the Council undertakes a stormy debate. (New York Times)

US to Urge Letting Iraq Double Money for Oil Gear (March 22, 2000)

Article discussing US plans to propose a resolution to the UN Security Council that would permit Iraq to raise double the sums through the "oil-for-food" program to be spent on spare parts for its oil industry. (New York Times)

World Food Programme Official in Baghdad Quits (February 15, 2000)

Agence France-Presse reports a second major official, the representative of the World Food Programme in Iraq, has quit in protest against the crippling effect of sanctions on ordinary Iraqis. This comes on the heels of the resignation of the UN Humanitarian Coordinator in Iraq, Hans von Sponeck and feeds widespread doubts about the sanctions.

Morbidity and Mortality Among Iraqi Children from 1990 through 1998

Iraq's Hospitals on Verge of Collapse, Red Cross Says (January 23, 2000)

A Nando Media article discusses the inadequacies of the oil-for-food programme for maintaining hospitals.

The "Lift the Sanctions" Resolution that Doesn't (January 11, 2000)

Phyllis Bennis of the Institute for Policy Studies offers an in depth analysis of the December 17th Security Council Resolution on Iraq.



Iraq Turns Down 'Evil' UN Plan to Ease Sanctions(December 20, 1999)

Both the US and British forces and Hussain reported to be prepared for possibility of more military confrontation. (Guardian, London)

UN Council Adopts Critical Resolution on Iraq (December 17, 1999)

The Security Council passes Resolution 1284; establishes the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) to replace the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) and lifts the ceiling on the Oil for Food Program. China, France, Malaysia and the Russian Federation abstain.(New York Times)

Key Points in UN Resolution on Iraq (December 17, 1999)

The UN Security Council's new landmark resolution on Iraq would restart arms inspections in Iraq and suspend trade sanctions if Baghdad complies with disarmament demands.

Iraq Vows to Stand Firm Against UN Draft on Sanctions, Arms Control (December 9, 1999)

Iraq's Vice President Taha Yassin Ramadan said Iraq would prefer a US-British air strike to accepting the resolution and stated that the "Security Council cannot decide on a lifting of sanctions because of US hegemony."

How to Monitor Iraq (November 30, 1999)

An opinion from Washington Post offering a strategy to inspect weapons in Iraq.

UN Officials Say Iraq Is Completing the Shutdown of Oil Exports (November 24, 1999)

"The extent of Iraq's defiance will be tested in the next few weeks as the Security Council, which has been stalled for almost a year, moves closer to an agreement on the inspection issue." (New York Times)

Iraq Cuts Exports, in Move That Foils Oil-For-Food Plan (November 23, 1999)

The New York Times reports on Iraqi cutbacks in oil exports protesting the Security Council's decision to extend the oil-for-food program for only two more weeks.

Security Council Extends Iraq 'Oil-for-Food' Program Until December 4 (November 19, 1999)

A fierce battle in the Council has blocked the US plan for a six-month extension of the oil-for-food program. Instead, the Council has extended it only for two weeks, in a clear effort to press for a comprehensive new program. The barbed comments of the Dutch ambassador and the reference to the "hereditary five" reveal the enormous frustration of the Council's elected members at US obstruction and the secret negotiations of the P-5.

Number of UN Contracts Delayed at $1.8 Bln (November 18, 1999)

Iraq accused the United States and Britain on Thursday of blocking more than 1,000 contracts worth $1.8 billion signed under its oil-for-food deal with the United Nations.

Iraq Disagrees with Current Conditioned Efforts to Lift Sanctions (November 18, 1999)

The chairman of the Arab and Foreign Relations Committee asserted Iraq's position in a response to the information that the UN is close to adopting a British proposal.

Oil Traders See No Major Break in Iraqi Exports (November 9, 1999)

Western diplomats said the 180-day United Nations "oil-for-food" programme would be renewed regardless of whether the UN was able to pass an omnibus resolution easing sanctions.

Iraq Urges for a Total Embargo Lift (November 8, 1999)

Deputy Premier Tareq Aziz said Iraq was against any debate in the UN Security Council not aimed at lifting totally the sanctions against it. (China Daily)

Iraq Rules Out New Monitoring Tied to Suspension of Sanctions (November 4, 1999)

New York Times reports on Iraqi foreign minister's rejection of new weapons-monitoring program in return for easing of economic sanctions.

UN Monitors Suggested for Iraq (October 28, 1999)

US and Britain suggested that, with no weapons inspectors in Iraq, UN monitors make sure that imports for humanitarian programs are not being diverted to military use.

Iraqis Confident That Sanctions Will Soon Weaken (October 27, 1999)

Iraq these days is looking a lot less isolated. Even at the United Nations, the U.S. policy of pushing sanctions appears to be losing support.

Increase in Iraqi Oil Smuggling (October 16, 1999)

US naval forces in the Gulf say they are intercepting an increasing number of ships trying to smuggle goods out of Iraq in contravention of UN sanctions.

Iraq May Spend Double on Parts (October 13, 1999)

Because of high oil prices, Iraq will have surpassed the UN limit on oil sales before the end of the current phase, but it was authorized to continue the sale to make up for shortfalls from previous phases.

UN Experts Note Absence from Iraq (October 11, 1999)

UN weapons experts reported that they spent much of the past six months preparing to return to Baghdad and are waiting for the Security Council to adopt a new policy to get them there.

Saddam Makes Children Hostages to His Future (September 1, 1999)

The San Francisco Chronicle briefly outlines different countries' perspectives on Iraq sanctions and calls for the recent UN report documenting humanitarian suffering in Iraq to be kept in mind as Iraq policy comes up for review.

Congressional Staffers To Visit Iraq (August 29, 1999)

A Rueters article about Congressional team's decision to go ahead with visit to Iraq despite the State Department's warning that such a trip to Iraq is too dangerous. Article is followed by text of a State Department briefing with Spokesman James Foley.

Ramsay Clark's Letter on Iraq and Sanctions (August 27, 1999)

Letter sent from former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark to the ambassador and foreign minister of each member of the UN Security Council, and to the UN General Assembly.

State Dept. Blocks Congressional Staff Visit to Iraq (August 23, 1999)

A press release from American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) criticizes blocking of investigation on impact of sanctions.

Iraq 'Exporting Baby Food' (August 18, 1999)

A BBC News article about Iraq's disregarding the welfare of its children. "Baby food has been an emotional issue in the propaganda war between Iraq and the US for years...."

High Oil Prices May Bring Windfall for Iraq (August 10, 1999)

New York Times reporting that the rise in oil prices may bring Iraq beyond its allotted level of oil sales under the UN Oil for Food Program, it is also reported, however, that little aid from these sales is getting to the children in need.

UN Team Leaves Iraq After Destroying VX Gas (July 28, 1999)

Boston Globe reports that a UN team of independent experts ended a controversial mission that involved the destruction of the deadly VX nerve agent

Baghdad Weapons Programs Dormant Iraq's Inactivity Puzzles US Officials (July 15, 1999)

Washington Post article on the Iraq sanctions debate. Though there is no indication that Iraq resumed chemical and biological weapons programs, the US would rather have no inspections than negotiate on UNSCOM.

UN to Send Team to Iraq That Excludes Inspectors (June 25, 1999)

A small team of "totally independent and neutral" experts will travel to Iraq in order to clean up dangerous chemical substances left behind when weapons inspectors left Iraq in December 1998. (New York Times)

Iraqi Foreign Minister Dismisses British Proposal on Sanctions (June 18, 1999)

The British-Dutch proposal is "unacceptable" because it "transforms Iraq into a protectorate, a new colony, through a decision taken in the Security Council," Iraqi Foreign Minister Mohammed Saeed al-Sahhaf said. (Associated Press)

A New Course on Iraq (June 18, 1999)

This New York Times editorial praises the decision of the US to "put aside its counterproductive insistence that sanctions against Iraq must remain in place as long as Saddam Hussein holds power."

UN Warns of Severe Drought in Iraq (June 3, 1999)

According to UN officials, the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq will prove insufficient in dealing with an expected drought in the region.

Damaged Iraqi Refinery Becomes a Major Hazard (May 31, 1999)

Iraq faces significant environmental damage because it is unable to finance repairs to its oil refineries under the current embargo. The UN has decided to allow Iraq to use some of its oil revenue to ameliorate the situation.

Iraq Renews Oil-for-Food Deal (May 25, 1999)

Iraq's SOMO, the state oil marketing arm, was now working on new contracts for the sixth phase of the deal.

Iraq Assesses Humanitarian Program (May 13, 1999)

Iraq sent a report on the oil-for-food program to U.N. Secretary-General, saying that the U.N. humanitarian program in Iraq has failed to ease the humanitarian effect on the civilians.

Iraq Says Malaysia to Help Fight Trade Sanctions (May 11, 1999)

Malaysia called on Security Council for a new mechanism for monitoring Iraq's weapons program. They also want the air strikes and the imposition of "no-fly-zones'' to be stopped immediately.

Oil Spares for Iraq Just Four Percent of Target Figure (April 26, 1999)

Article higlights one of the main problems in the current situation: Under the oil-for-food program Iraq may sell up to 5.2 billion dollars worth of oil per six-month period. However, Iraq is receiving only a fraction of the spare parts necessary to produce the oil.

Syria Sneaks Iraq's Oil Out as Old Foes Become Friends (April 26, 1999)

Despite the UN/US sanctions, Syria is importing Iraq's oil. This article suggests that the government of Syria may be one of the buyers.

British and Dutch Offer Plan to Expand Inspections in Iraq (April 16, 1999)

UN Report Says Iraq Needs Oil Investments to Rise from Poverty (March 30, 1999)

This new report suggests that there may be more humane and constructive ways of dealing with the crisis in Iraq.

U.N. OKs $174M Claim Against Iraq (March 18, 1999)

U.N. panel has ruled that Iraq will have to pay an additional $174 million to companies that suffered losses resulting from Iraq's 1990 invasion of Kuwait.

Saudis Seize Iraqi Plane, Seek UN Advice (March 18, 1999)

Iraqi planes are taking Iraqi pilgrims to Mecca without Sanctions Committee approval.

Iraq Breaks Sanctions by Flying Pilgrims into Saudi Arabia (March 16, 1999)

In the face of sanctions, Iraqi Muslims demonstrate their faith.

Unexplained Strategies on Iraq (March 3, 1999)

New York Times editorial on the shift of US strategy towards Iraq.

Iraqi Infant Malnutrition 'Unacceptably High': UN (February 25, 1999)

This article shows the frustration of the lack of success with the oil-for-food program in Iraq.

U.N. Panel on Iraqi Disarmament Holds First Meeting (February 23, 1999)

The recently established 20-member expert panel created to address the Iraqi sanctions, is ridiculed by Iraq. Is it to be a prolongment of procrastination, or a light at the end of the disarmament tunnel?

Iraq to Ban Imports From U.S., Britain (February 23, 1999)

Article shows Iraq's importing practices under oil-for-food program.

Iraq to Get Internet Access (February 4, 1999)

It is not clear if Iraq has obtained permission to install an Internet system from the United Nations, which has to approve Iraq's commercial contracts with foreign countries because of the sanctions.

Iraq Rejects U.N. Decision to Create Study Panels (February 1, 1999)

Iraq calling for immediate action to lift sanctions, but the Security Council stays firm until Iraq has complied weapon elimination.

Iraq Sanctions Leave Mark On Children: Malnutrition, Unawareness Define Youth (January 25, 1999)

Charles Sennott looks at the lives of the children of Baghdad. Irreversibly changed by years of sanctions and betrayed by their government, these children represent the future of Iraq.

UN: Iraq Not Buying Food Under Plan (January 14, 1999)

Western diplomats fear Iraq may be delaying signing humanitarian aid contracts at a time when it is trying to increase pressure to have the U.N. oil embargo lifted.

Increase in Number of Spare Parts Contracts for Iraq's Oil Industry (January 21, 1999)

Some spare part contracts for Iraq's oil industry that have been released from on hold. More are expected in order to increase the production under oil-for-food program.

Security Council Resolution Regarding Iraq (January 30, 1999)

Notes by the President of the Security Council in January 1999, Amb. Celso Amorim of Brazil.




Security Council Puts Onus Back on Inspectors in Iraq

About the problems with the UN inspections in Iraq. (Associated Press)

Now UN Is Left to Ponder Inspections and Sanctions (December 21, 1998)

The four days air strike on Iraq have left UN with assessments to be made on inspections and sanctions.(New York Times)

Strike Aims to Cripple Weapons Centers (December 17, 1998)

While the aim is clear, it may only serve to cripple UNSCOM and US intelligence on Iraqi weapons programs.(New York Times)

In New Challenge to the U.N., Iraq Halts Arms Monitoring (0ctober 31,1998)

Iraq demands end to sanctions, wants inspectors to withdraw.

UN Coordinator to Leave Iraq at End of September (September 13, 1998)

Denis Halliday, UN coordinator of the Iraqi oil-for-food progamme, is scheduled to leave Iraq in September.

UN Keeps Sanctions on Iraq, Citing Its Balking of Monitors (September 9, 1998)

Article from the New York Times by Barbara Crossette on the Security Council Decision to keep the sanctions on Iraq.

Mediator Failed to Sway Iraq on Arms, Security Council Is Told (August 18, 1998)

ANew York Times article by Paul Lewis on the failed efforts of the mediator in Iraq.

US Pressed UN to Cancel Iraqi Arms Inspections (August 16, 1998)

Opposed to Clinton administration's strong public position, the administration has intervened secretly against surprise inspections in Iraq.

Iraq Increasingly Defiant on Arms Inspections (August 13, 1998)

A New York Times article by Barbara Crossette on the arms inspection-sanctions situation.

Iraq's Oil Deal Needs to Be Improved (June 28, 1998)

A new oil-for-food plan is needed to improve the situation of the Iraqi population. (Reuters)

UN Chief Inspector: Iraq Close to Being Free from UN Sanctions (June 15, 1998)

Article previewing a possible end to UN Security Council sanctions. (Associated Press)

Iraq, UN Reach Agreement on Disarmament Plan (June 14, 1998)

Posted by CNN Interactive.

UN Chief: More Humanitarian Supplies Reach Iraq (June 9, 1998)

Improved arrangements under the oil-for-food program for Iraq are finally realized, but problems remain.

How UN 'Inspects' An Iraq Site (February 24, 1998)

'Informative' article from the Christian Science Monitor in February 1998, which reviews the issue which has caused the UNSCOM migraine.

Secretary-General's Mission to Iraq (February 20-24, 1998)

Links to UN documents and summaries of Kofi Annan's involvement in the resolution of the February Iraq crisis.

Memorandum of Understanding between the UN and the Republic of Iraq (February 23, 1998)





UN Chief May Propose Easing Restrictions on Sale of Iraqi Oil (November 27, 1997)

Article from the New York Times.

"UN Council Asked to Raise Limit on Sale of Iraqi Oil" (February 3, 1997)

New York Times article.



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