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Getting Congo's Wealth to Its People (December 22, 2006)

The Boston Globe reports that despite Congo's rich natural resources, the revenue is not reaching the country's people, and they continue to suffer from disease and malnutrition. A number of unfavorable mining deals between the Congolese government and international corporations mean that most of the money is channeled away from the country. The article estimates that the Congo has signed away millions or possibly billions of dollars' worth of copper and cobalt for 35 years for very little in return.

JM Guehenno: I Would Like to See MONUC Stay for Another Three Years in the DRC (December 8, 2006)

In an interview, the head of the UN Peacekeeping Operation department, Jean-Marie Guehenno, calls for further international involvement to help the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) move towards building sustainable democratic institutions. Instead of adopting a 'paternalistic' approach, the international community should bring its technical ability to the benefit of DRC development, he says. Guehenno recommends that the UN peacekeeping mission in DRC stay in the country for another three years to support the new institutions and infrastructures reconstruction. (

Kabila's Biggest Challenge (November 28, 2006)

This East African piece claims that the newly elected Democratic Republic of Congo president, Joseph Kabila, will face serious challenges in leading the country. The divide revealed by the poll between the western DRC, in favor of Bemba, and the east, in support of the president, threatens the formation of a national unity government. The article also questions the role of the UN peacekeeping mission (MONUC) in stabilizing the country after the election. Citing Haiti and East Timor as examples, the author warns against a quick withdrawal of UN troops in the mineral rich country.

Kabila Confirmed as Congo Leader (November 27, 2006)

Ending the presidential election impasse, the Supreme Court of the Democratic Republic of Congo proclaimed Joseph Kabila as the country's new head of state. The Court rejected fraud allegations of the election opponent Jean-Pierre Bemba who filed a legal challenge to the election's results. The decision sheds hopes for a return to calm in the Central African country after violent protests from Bemba's supporters required the intervention of the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC). (BBC)

Kabila Wins Congo Poll, Rival Rejects Result (November 15, 2006)

Following the second round of presidential elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), international attention focuses not only on the results of the election, but also on whether both the Joseph Kabila and Jean-Pierre Bemba camps will accept the outcome. While the current President Kabila appears to have won, his opponent seems reluctant to acknowledge defeat, claiming election fraud. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, as well as Kabila, called for calm until final results are released. (Reuters)

Hundreds of Thousands Raped in Congo Wars (November 13, 2006)

Rape has become so widespread in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) that the UN Under Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs compared it to "a cancer in the Congolese society." Government soldiers as well as rebel militias use systematic sexual abuse "as a weapon of destruction" to punish communities for their political loyalties, an expert says. Sexual violence, which affected at least a hundred thousand women in DRC, shocks because of its scale and brutality. (Guardian)

UN and European Security Forces Vigilant Ahead of Presidential Run-Off (October 24, 2006)

Despite the violence between clans of the two presidential candidates following the first election round, the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo, MONUC, remains optimistic that the second election will occur in a calm atmosphere. The UN called on presidential rivals Joseph Kabila and Jean-Pierre Bemba to urge their supporters to remain calm. Both politicians signed undertakings to maintain peace during the elections. Yet, UN troops prepare themselves to face any situation that could arise for the second election round. (Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Bullets in the Congo: New Research (October 16, 2006)

Oxfam International, Amnesty International and the International Action Network on Small Arms published a common report on small arms. The organizations' findings reveal that arms originated from Greece, China, Russia and the USA made their way to rebel groups in the region of Ituri in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), despite the UN arms embargo. The campaigners believe that the violation of the embargo results not from direct sale to rebels but through neighboring countries. As the UN opens a discussion on arms trade this October 2006, the three NGOs urge the UN negotiators to establish global standards for arms sales.

War, Murder, Rape... All for Your Cell Phone (September 15, 2006)

While the democratic elections give hope for the future in DRC, peace in the country will depend on the government taking greater control over the mines. Minerals such as coltan, cassiterite, tin oxide and cobalt, abundant in DRC, have a tremendous value as they are needed to make cell phones, laptop computers and other portable electronics. Poorly paid soldiers have strong incentive to gain control over resource-rich areas. Soldiers have been founded using intimidation, pillage, arbitrary arrests or torture to tax or steal what mining workers extract. (AlterNet)

Will Congo Explode? (August 29, 2006)

As the Democratic Republic of the Congo prepares for the run-off presidential election, political and ethnic tensions look set to "hit an all time high." This East African article warns of "major ramifications for the stability of countries in East and Central Africa" should the election spark a return to militia based violence. Efforts at demobilizing the militias and integrating them into the national army have not succeeded, and hawkish allies of President Joseph Kabila threaten not to give up power even if Kabila accepts defeat in the second ballot.

Uganda: Govt Warns It Will Invade DR Congo If Talks With LRA Fail (August 22, 2006)

The Ugandan government promises to repeat its 1998 invasion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo should the rebel Lord's Resistance Army fail to sign a peace deal by September 12, 2006. LRA leader Joseph Kony has taken advantage of the porous border with the DRC throughout the twenty year war in northern Uganda to seek refuge and regroup. While agreeing to confront the LRA, the government of the DRC remains opposed to Ugandan troops reentering the country. The 1998 invasion sparked a six country war and left militias in control of areas throughout the eastern provinces. (East African)

DR Congo Run-Off Could Be Best Result (August 21, 2006)

The Democratic Republic of the Congo must face a second round of voting as no one candidate received more than 50 percent in the country's landmark presidential election. While violence preceded the announcement that President Joseph Kabila had received 45 percent, thus requiring a run-off vote with rival Jean-Pierre Bemba, observers expressed hope that the second ballot will vent some of the tensions surrounding the elections. An outright win by President Kabila may have sparked off serious violence in the capital Kinshasa where Jean-Pierre Bemba enjoys much support. (BBC)

Who Will Be DR Congo's Next President? (August 13, 2006)

This New Times article profiles the front runners in the race to become the president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Even with half of the votes counted, the electoral commission remains wary of projecting results, as most of the leading candidates enjoy strong links with militias or well armed supporters who may produce a violent response to unfavorable results.

Millions Go to the Polls in Congo (July 31, 2006)

Millions of Congolese citizens voted in the first free elections since the Democratic Republic of the Congo won independence 46 years ago. Despite violence in the run up to the vote and opposition in rebel controlled areas, the polls passed off without serious incident. This Washington Post article states that the announcement of the election results will prove "the greatest test of Congo's fragile order." There exists fierce opposition to President Joseph Kabila, seen by outside observers as the front runner, with many opponents contending the vote was rigged in his favor.

DR Congo Militias Lay Down Arms (July 27, 2006)

In an important development, the three main rebel groups in the eastern Ituri province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have agreed to lay down their arms and allow safe passage for voters during the country's historic election. Militia violence in the northeast had threatened to undermine the vote. The deal, struck with the government, will see the militias integrated into the national army and should allow tens of thousands to participate in the first free polls in the DRC in over 40 years. (BBC)

DRC's Potential: Lighting the Continent from Cape to Cairo (June 29, 2006)

In this interview with Pambazuka, political scientist Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja discusses the strategic importance of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Africa. He argues that the DRC has enough lakes, rivers, rainfall and natural resources to be the "breadbasket of Africa." However, he argues that the failure of the transitional government to fulfill the requirements for free and fair elections prevents the DRC playing any "emancipatory role with respect to Africa's development."

Call for DR Congo Election Delay (July 6, 2006)

With only weeks to go until election day in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, more than half of the presidential candidates have called for a postponement of the vote. While the UN hopes the poll will be the first democratic election in the DRC in 45 years, some candidates believe that poor organization, and the contentious printing of an extra 5 million ballot papers, undermine the credibility of the vote. Corruption threatens the elections too – authorities have expelled journalists for refusing to pay huge fees for press accreditation, thus depriving many citizens of the ability to inform themselves of campaign issues. (BBC)

Digging in Corruption (July 2006)

This Global Witness report highlights the corruption and fraud that plague mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo province of Katanga, one of the world's richest copper and cobalt producing areas. While the people of the Congo remain mired in poverty, government and security officials ignore or actively collude in smuggling large quantities of precious minerals out of the country. Putting an end to the corruption and impunity in the mining sector would bolster the democratic election results and allow the DRC to take advantage of its own natural wealth.

In Congo, a Cosmetic EU Operation (June 12, 2006)

This article questions the reasons behind the deployment of additional EU troops in support of MONUC before the elections in the DRC. The authors argue that the mission has more to do with bolstering the credibility of the European Security and Defense Policy than improving the situation on the ground in the DRC, and deplore that it took more than four months for the EU to respond to the UN request. Deploying only 2000 peacekeepers to the capital Kinshasa, rather than to the eastern provinces where anarchy threatens to undermine the poll, offers further evidence of the cosmetic nature of the long promised operation. (International Herald Tribune)

"We Cannot Have Elections Like This" (May 29, 2006)

As the Democratic Republic of Congo prepares for its first nation-wide elections in 40 years, the birth of a new militia in the country's troubled north-eastern region is undermining prospects for a successful poll. The Congolese Revolutionary Movement (MRC) is recruiting hundreds of veterans of the previous conflicts in the Congo, uniting nearly a dozen loose rebel groups that failed to observe a July 2005 deadline to lay down their arms. The DRC army, backed by UN peacekeepers, has made slow progress in winning back territory from the MRC, and doubts have been raised as to the potential for a successful election in the north east. (Inter Press Service)

DRC: Interview with Ross Mountain, Deputy Special Representative (May 22, 2006)

Ross Mountain, the Deputy Special Representative of the UN Secretary General for the Democratic Republic of Congo, describes the "humanitarian catastrophe" that has befallen the Central African country. He explains how disease, malnutrition and dirty water have contributed to the high death toll due to the conflict's destruction of crucial services. He emphasizes the need for security sector reform, pointing to the fact that the vast majority of human rights abuses have been at the hands of men in the uniform of the national army. (Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Spectre of Civil War Haunts Congo (May 11, 2006)

This Der Spiegel article highlights the volatile situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo that could destroy any chance of progress following the elections due at the end of July. Despite the popularity of President Joseph Kabila, the article claims the leaders of the pro-Rwandan RCD party, linked in the minds of local people with the area's bloody past, are not willing to give up power. The author warns against the resumption of civil war in the eastern provinces as aid workers predict the RCD will attempt to take advantage of the government's military weakness and destabilize the election.

Rwanda: Congo No Longer Supports Rebels (May 8, 2006)

Rwandan President Paul Kagame has declared Kigali no longer sees the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo as supporters of the Hutu militias responsible for the genocide in Rwanda in 1994. Kagame's announcement marks a positive development ahead of the first democratic elections in the DRC since independence in 1960. Tensions in the eastern provinces of the DRC threaten to destabilize the election with local leaders loyal to Rwanda unwilling to give up power should they lose the election. (Seattle Post-Intelligencer)

The Gamble of Elections in the Congo (April 14, 2006)

The elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) - postponed for the third time and now tentatively scheduled for July 2006 - are supported by the UN's largest and most expensive electoral assistance operation. But according to International Crisis Group analyst Jason Stearns, the UN and the Congolese government have not taken the necessary precautions to ensure that the elections don't pit different parties against each other and degenerate into an "all-out war." Congolese politicians should make efforts to reconcile the opposing ethnic factions and the UN must end impunity to the main protagonist of the latest surge in violence, rebel leader Laurent Nkunda. (East African)

The State vs. the People: Governance, Mining and the Transitional Regime in the DRC (April 11, 2006)

This report analyzes the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) governance practices in the mining sector of the Katanga province, where economic stakes are exceptionally high because of vast mineral reserves. The mining sector could play an important role in improving Congolese living conditions but DRC's ruling elite has failed to take action. The international Fatal Attractions Campaign calls on all those involved - companies, governments, political parties and the international community - to work at developing, promoting and supporting initiatives that will ensure that Congo's coltan, gold, and diamonds enhance DRC's economic growth and stability.

Struggling to Survive (April 2006)

Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo suffer almost unendurable hardship and suffering. Tens of thousands of children are recruited by all parties associated with the conflict to fight in the front lines. Of the 38, 000 conflict related deaths per month, 45% are under the age of 18. Children also face the constant threats of abduction for human trafficking, forced labor and rape and other forms of sexual violence. Almost all are denied any effective form of humanitarian assistance. Among its many recommendations, this Watch List report urges the UN Security Council to strengthen MONUC's capacity to protect children and urgently calls on all parties to the conflict to stop the crimes against children.

Another Modern Tragedy (March 16, 2006)

Although necessary for peace, the June 2006 presidential elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo could create more instability, warns the European Voice. In the "dangerously unstable" eastern province of North Kivu, Rwandan-backed rebels claim that President Joseph Kabila is rousing hatred against their communities. Fearing to lose the elections, Laurent Nkunda – a ruthless rebel commander under UN sanctions for human rights abuses – has encouraged violence against rival ethnic groups in an attempt to derail the polls. To avert "another modern tragedy," the Congolese government, with the UN behind it, must put an end to Nkunda's impunity and stop the war from breaking out again in North Kivu.

Europe's Heart of Darkness (March 8, 2006)

The UN has asked the EU to provide European troops to reinforce the peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo ahead of the June 2006 elections. But Germany, which reluctantly accepted to take the lead of any eventual EU mission, seems unable to find enough European countries willing to contribute troops: Poland pledged 30 troops and Austria promised to send 10. According to Der Spiegel, many officials in Berlin, Paris and Brussels hope they can avoid getting involved in "the chaos that consumes Congo."

Behind the Numbers: Untold Suffering in the Congo (March 1, 2006)

The war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has claimed more lives than any armed conflict since World War II. Yet rich countries seem unwilling to commit to solving the conflict "because of powerful economic and geopolitical interests." Mining multinationals are willing to do whatever it takes to profit from Congo's diamond, gold, uranium, petroleum, and coltan resources – including smuggling gold through local rebel militias and committing gross human rights abuses. This ZNet article offers detailed information about the multinational's plunder of DRC's natural resources including the names of eminent individuals involved.

UN Calls for £400m to End Congo's "Forgotten Crisis" (February 13, 2006)

At a donor's conference in Brussels, the UN and the EU called on the international community to provide US$681 million for an "action plan" to ensure security and provide humanitarian assistance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC.) The UN also asked the EU to provide troops to reinforce MONUC, the UN peacekeeping force of 16,000 men based in eastern Congo. The DRC received only 62 per cent of the promised pledges in 2005 because some countries such as the US, Japan, Germany, France and Italy failed to donate their "fair share." (Independent)

Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Nationwide Survey (January 7, 2006)

This landmark report from the Lancet medical journal dubs the 10-year war that has plagued the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) "the world's deadliest humanitarian crisis." With 38 000 people dying every month - the mortality equivalent of the Southeast Asian tsunami – the report accuses the rich donor countries of "miserably failing the people of Congo." While most deaths are due to preventable and easily treatable diseases, mortality rates are highest in DRC's eastern provinces, where the fighting and lawlessness cut off or reduce access to health services.

The Call for Tough Arms Controls: Voices from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (January 2006)

This report from the Control Arms Campaign highlights the devastating human cost of the arms trade in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The report also condemns the world's continuing failure to control the arms trade in the DRC. The countries that supply guns to the DRC must agree on clear principles on the exportation of small arms to prevent weapons from getting into the wrong hands. As a humanitarian officer puts it, "there are so many weapons here that each person makes his own law."



Elections in the Congo Not an End in Themselves (December 19, 2005)

Holding elections in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is no panacea, warns this analyst from the International Crisis Group. To build a functioning democracy, the new government will need to address the role of natural resources in fuelling the nine-year war. By ensuring that copper and gold extraction benefits the Congolese people - not just international mining companies and local elites - the government could prevent recurring violence. (East African)

Diamond Industry Annual Review, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2005 (December 12, 2005)

This Partnership Africa Canada report shows how illicit diamond trafficking remains the biggest obstacle on the bumpy road to peace and stability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Armed militias smuggled an estimated $200-300 million worth of diamonds out of the country in 2005. Given the importance of the diamond industry in the DRC - it sustains 800,000 people and their families - the Kinshasa government and the UN peacekeeping mission must take action to ensure that benefits reach those who live and work in diamond mining areas.

The Riddle of The Sphynx: Where Has Congo's Oil Money Gone? (December 2005)

At a time when the Democratic Republic of Congo is asking the international community for debt relief, Global Witness reveals that the head of the state oil company was selling hundreds of millions of dollars in cut-price oil to private companies he himself owns. According to Global Witness, France, as the country's biggest bilateral creditor, should take the lead in promoting transparency to ensure Congo's oil wealth benefits its people.

Under-Mining Peace: The Explosive Trade in Cassiterite in Eastern DRC (June 2005)

This report reveals the concealed role of minerals in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), as eastern DRC rebel groups fight for the control of cassiterite. Global Witness urges the UN Security Council to impose sanctions on cassiterite and coltan imports from Rwanda, as well as to include monitoring of natural resources exploitation and flows in the mandate of MONUC.

Democratic Republic of Congo: Arming the East (July 5, 2005)

This Amnesty International report discusses arms sales to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from several countries and from arms dealers such as Victor Bout, emphasizing the destruction these weapons cause within the country. Noting special concern with Rwandan, Ugandan and Congolese government military aid to militias, the report offers concrete recommendations to the UN Security Council, all states, and especially neighboring governments to make the arms embargo more effective.

The Congo Case (July 3, 2005)

The New York Times magazine continues its long series of articles favoring US military intervention. Here, after a selective survey of reasons for the Congo government's virtual collapse, the author concludes that UN peacekeeping cannot reestablish order, so only "benevolent imperialism" can do the job.

Global Witness Open Letter to the UN Security Council, Regarding Conflict Resources and Peacekeeping in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (March 18, 2005)

Global Witness criticizes the UN Security Council for insufficiently addressing the nexus between the illegal exploitation of natural resources and armed conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Liberia. In particular, this letter argues that the Council should expand UN peacekeepers' mandate in the DRC to allow for monitoring and protection of natural resources and should deploy more troops to resource-rich areas of Liberia. Global Witness recommends that the Council "mainstream into the mandate of all peacekeeping missions a monitoring and reporting component related to natural resource exploitation."

The Curse of Gold (June 2005)

This Human Rights Watch report "documents human rights abuses linked to efforts to control" key mining areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo. While Ugandan soldiers have "coerced gold miners to extract the gold for their benefit," multinational gold corporations exploring in the area have provided logistical and financial support to violent Congolese armed groups. According to the report, "the international community has failed to effectively tackle" this problem. Although the UN appointed a panel of experts to investigate the role of illegal exploitation of natural resources in the conflict, the Security Council failed to establish a mechanism to follow up the panel's recommendations.

Congo and Uganda: A Rush of Gold (December 2005)

According to a political affairs officer of the UN mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo, peacekeepers "don't have the means" to prevent Ugandan-backed rebels from illegally exporting gold from the northeastern region of Ituri to Europe. In addition, some ministers of the Kinshasa government are directly involved in gold trafficking and have no interest in establishing peace in the region. As a result, the unbothered rebels continue to violate the UN-established arms embargo by purchasing arms with the profits generated by the gold mining industry. (Le Monde diplomatique)

UN Warns Uganda on Congo Invasion (October 7, 2005)

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni warned that his country's military will invade the northeastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) if the Congolese government or the UN fails to disarm Ugandan rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army who have taken refuge there. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan warned against using force in solving the dispute, arguing that it breaks the principles of the UN Charter. (Daily Monitor -Kampala)

MONUC Assists DR Congo Army in Disarming LRA (October 5, 2005)

The UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) has decided to assist the DRC government in disarming 380 Ugandan rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) who fled illegally to Congo in September following Ugandan military operations. The LRA rebels use the Congolese territories as bases, safe havens or as supply routes for illegal arms trafficking.

Annan Renews Appeal for Troops in Congo's Katanga (September 26, 2005)

Secretary General Kofi Annan asked the Security Council for 2,580 additional peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of Congo in order to address the threats posed by armed groups that have taken over the gold-rich Katanga region. This is Annan's second plea for the central African country but the US, which pays for over 25 percent of the operation, has made clear its opposition to adding peacekeepers to a mission costing $1 billion a year. (Reuters)

UN Congo Force Modeling Shift in Peacekeeping (September 16, 2005)

This article highlights a shift toward more robust and comprehensive UN peacekeeping. In addition to maintaining peace and security, peacekeepers "are increasingly charged with assisting in political processes, reforming justice systems, training law-enforcement and security forces, and disarming former combatants." The changes in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) confirm this shift: since the UN broadened the mandate of the peacekeeping troops, a semblance of order prevails in the country. (Forward)

UN Stretched Thin in Congo (September 12, 2005)

The UN's peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) is facing harsh criticism about its effectiveness and sustainability. The governments of Uganda and Rwanda accuse the UN and Congolese troops of failing to control the rebel groups that occasionally launch attacks across their borders. Maj. Gen. Patrick Cammaert, commander of UN troops in northeastern Congo, claims that his soldiers are doing the best they can with limited resources and a sometimes ambiguous mandate that curbs their ability to attack the rebels. (Los Angeles Times)

"Rwanda's Genocide Still Echoes in Congo" (August 24, 2005)

As rebels from the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) continue to launch raids against civilians in the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo, the United Nations faces a critical decision: "Should it continue to step up the pressure [...] or should it back down?" In this Globe and Mail article, an International Crisis Group analyst urges the UN to offer better incentives for rebel disarmament or be prepared to take military action alongside the Congolese army.

Cash Crunch Could Force UN Congo Mission Cutbacks (August 12, 2005)

The UN peacekeeping mission in Democratic Republic of Congo faces a "cash crunch" that could force a reduction in military operations or election preparations, says Reuters. France has introduced a Security Council draft resolution proposing the redistribution of $103 million to get around the budget constraints. But the resolution also calls for adding UN troops, which requires approval from the US Congress because the US pays for nearly a quarter of UN peacekeeping operations. Waiting for US approval pushes back a Council vote until at least September 6, which diplomats say "is going to be too late."

Annan Backs Congo's Decision to Disarm Rebels (August 10, 2005)

The Democratic Republic of Congo government will begin to disarm Rwandan rebels by force, a move hailed by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan as one step towards peace in the Great Lakes region. Business Day says the effort will "help reduce tension between Congo and its neighbour, Rwanda." Nevertheless, Annan warns that the arms embargo and travel bans must be enforced with more pressure from the international community in order for peace to succeed in the Great Lakes region.


UN Steps Up Pace in Eastern Congo after Massacre (July 14, 2005)

The UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) has faced criticism for not protecting civilians, and a July 2005 massacre of nearly 50 villagers in the country's North Kivu province prompted an active response at the UN. William Swing, the UN special envoy for Congo, urged peacekeepers to build up the local army and repatriate foreign fighters, mainly Rwandan Hutu rebels who spilled over the border after the 1994 genocide, in order to re-establish stability in the region. (Reuters)


UN To Probe Congo Weapons Flows (June 8, 2005)

Despite a Security Council arms embargo, the "illegal exploitation of minerals such as gold and diamonds still funds arms flows to militias" in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). UN sanctions experts, who have been granted increased investigative powers, will head to the DRC to inspect land and airspace for "suspected violators of the embargo" and to monitor bank accounts. However, the DRC's "enormously long and extremely porous borders," as well as illegal arms trade with neighboring countries make UN arms sanctions difficult to enforce. (BBC)


A Tougher UN Starts Taming Congo (May 10, 2005)

A number of major military successes against renegade militias have increased the credibility of the UN mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) and raised hopes that the mission could pave the way for peace. Many people welcome the large Pakistani contingent's more aggressive approach to disarming rebels and restoring order in a country where rape, looting and killing with impunity have become daily practice. More and more fighters have disarmed as a result of MONUC's forceful stance, but Hutu rebel groups continue to challenge the mission. (Christian Science Monitor)


UN Council Plans to Extend Congo Arms Ban on Rebels (April 18, 2005)

France has drafted a Security Council resolution extending the arms embargo on the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Council first imposed an arms ban on armed groups in eastern DRC in mid 2003. The draft suggests imposing an arms embargo on all rebel groups in the DRC and punishing violators with a travel ban and a freeze of assets. The resolution further calls on neighboring states to maintain a registry of all flights going to the DRC in order to curb the export of minerals that finance the rebels' military operations. (AlertNet)

The Congo's Transition Is Failing: Crisis in the Kivus (March 30, 2005)

International Crisis Group warns that renewed military tension in the Democratic Republic of Congo's Kivu provinces endangers nationwide elections scheduled for June 2005 and risks derailing the fragile peace process. Rwanda's 8,000 to 10,000 rebels stationed on the border of eastern DRC not only pose a danger to Congolese civilians, they also provide Kigali with a dangerous justification for meddling. For peace to prevail in the DRC leaders in Kinshasa need to resolve the power sharing issues, and the UN Mission needs to strengthen its capacity to support the Congolese army against Rwandan as well as Congolese rebels.

Africa's Forgotten War (March 21, 2005)

Nancy Soderbergh of the International Crisis Group argues that an improved security situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo is essential to safeguard the fragile peace deal between rebels and the government. She urges the UN and the international community to build a functioning Congolese army to protect civilians and control borders, and stresses that the DRC remains at risk of renewed civil war as long as local leaders refuse to commit to peace. (Boston Globe)

Humanitarian Crises: Congo Worst (March 16, 2005)

During a visit to Geneva, UN Under Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs Jan Egeland told a news conference that the death toll of the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) amounted to "one tsunami every six months." Egeland emphasized that the world paid too little attention to the violence in eastern DRC. A UN report detailing some militia's gruesome tactics of torture and murder, as well as widespread violence against women reinforced his concern. (Reuters)

Thousands of Fighters Disarm in East Congo (March 8, 2005)

Approximately four thousand rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) eastern Ituri region have handed over their weapons, more than doubling the amount of disarmed militia. Head of the UN peacekeeping mission in Ituri Dominique McAdams views the weapons handover as a significant step forward, and stressed the principles of the disarmament program, which gives fighters the choice to return to civilian life or to join the army. (AlertNet)

Gold Keeps War in the DRC on the Boil (March 7, 2005)

Rising prices in valuable mineral resources have renewed tensions between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In November 2004 Rwanda threatened to invade the DRC, arguing Kinshasa harbors Hutu militias who participated in the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Armed Rwandan-backed groups control Congolese mines and profit from the increasing value of coltan, casting doubt on Rwanda's intentions as its troops gather on the DRC's borders. Experts fear clashes between Congolese government forces and renegade factions could destroy the fragile peace process in the country. (Mail and Guardian)

UN Paradox in Darfur and Congo (March 4, 2005)

This Christian Science Monitor piece compares the UN's bold response to the murder of nine peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of Congo with its cautious approach to the crisis in Darfur. The author highlights the Security Council's support of aggressive military action "as necessary for peace in Congo," but notes that similar action is out of the question in Sudan. Controversially, the author argues in favor of "military boldness," if only because "Africa deserves consistency in knowing the world won't stand by when mass slaughter goes unchecked."

UN Troops Tortured and Mutilated (March 2, 2005)

In the worst assault on UN peacekeepers since the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, attackers have murdered nine UN peacekeepers. The Congolese government has named Lendu militia group Front Nationaliste Integrationiste as the culprit, guilty of first torturing and then killing the UN troops. (Times-London)

UN Congo Envoy May Leave Amid Peacekeeper Scandal (February 28, 2005)

UN Representative in the DRC William Lacy Swing will likely submit his resignation following allegations of sexual exploitation of women and girls by peacekeepers in the country. UN officials said it would be appropriate to replace the top UN envoy in the DRC, although Swing was not personally involved in the scandal. Deputy Secretary General Louise Frechette is visiting peacekeeping missions in Liberia, Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast to draw attention to the UN's zero-tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse. (Reuters)

Congo Looting Keeps East Awash in Guns (February 28, 2005)

Congolese in Northeast Ituri say the region will not stabilize as long as private entrepreneurs and military figures run the province. A lack of border controls and airspace control facilitates gun trade into the region, which has contributed to the killing of at least 50,000 people in clashes between Hema and Lendu ethnic groups. As foreign traders exploit Congo's natural resources, they fuel ethnic strife in the DRC by providing local militias with weapons in return for protection of mining businesses. (Reuters)

UK Ignored UN Report on Looting in Congo, Say MPs (February 21, 2005)

A 2002 UN Panel of Experts report charged 85 Western companies with looting up to $5 billion worth of minerals in the DRC and asked individual states to conduct their own investigations into the pillaging of gold, diamonds, timber and coltan. Despite the gravity of the charges, the British government has made "little progress in examining and resolving the allegations" and British companies involved in the scandal have yet to face any punishments. (East African)

Prosecute Ex-Militia Leaders, Kinshasa Urged (February 16, 2005)

Juan Mendez, the UN's Special Adviser to the Secretary General on the Prevention of Genocide, has urged the Congolese government to cease the appointment of militia leaders "suspected of penetrating massacres and other war crimes" to high-ranking positions in the national army. Congolese NGOs have submitted a report of the militia's abominations to the ICC, calling on the international community to bring war criminals to justice. (Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Numbers of Civilians Displaced By Fighting in DR of Congo Skyrockets (February 15, 2005)

Following widespread killings, rape and looting, an additional 35,000 people have fled their homes in the DRC's northern Ituri region. UNICEF Director Carol Bellamy warned that the violence could disrupt the move towards peace and elections in June 2005. Despite a 14,000-strong UN peacekeeping force in the DRC to monitor ceasefire agreements, armed militias continue to terrorize locals outside UN-guarded sites, making it very difficult to help those most in need. (UN News)

UN Bans Peacekeepers from Sex with Congolese (February 10, 2005)

In a letter to the Security Council, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan outlined new "non fraternization" rules for UN peacekeepers and called for 100 extra police officers and French-speaking investigators to ensure that no further acts of sexual abuse occur in Congo. The measures include a curfew for UN forces as well as "specialized training and recreation facilities to alleviate the concentrated stress present in field missions." (AlertNet)

Rwanda's Tormentors Emerge From the Forest to Haunt Congo (February 10, 2005)

More than 10 years after the genocide in Rwanda, up to 15,000 Interahamwe still seek refuge in Eastern Congo, terrorizing local inhabitants and waiting for the right moment to drive out the Tutsi-led government in their native Rwanda. Congo maintains a heavy military presence on the border in fear of a Rwandan attack to hunt down the Hutu militia. A semi-successful UN effort to disarm the Interahamwe has not kept critics from arguing that Rwanda supports the presence of the militia in mineral-rich Congo in order to further advance its commercial interests. (Washington Post)

The Forgotten War (February 5, 2005)

For over a decade, Congo has been the scene of violent conflict and is burdened by 3.5 million refugees from Rwanda, as well as Interahamwe members who were driven across the border by the Rwandan army following the genocide in 1994. Rwandan dictator Paul Kagame,who has repeatedly attacked Congo, derives his wealth from mineral resources stolen from the Congolese. To consolidate his power in Congo, Kagame is trying prevent free elections by fueling tension between local militias. (Spiegel)

DRC: Less State Is Not Best State (January 13, 2005)

Pambazuka interviews Prof. Ernest Wamba dia Wamba on the implications of hostilities for the transitional Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) government and a possible delay of elections planned for June 2005. Wamba dia Wamba criticizes the South African leadership's attempts to resolve the crisis in DRC and charges "there was no concern for knowledge of the political history of the country." He further advocates a federal DRC and not "a party state trying to equate society with a party."

UN Says Congo Death Toll among World's Worst; Urges Congo and Rwanda to Work to Restore Peace (January 7, 2005)

UN Humanitarian Affairs Chief Jan Egeland warned that approximately 1,000 people a day are dying in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as a result of ongoing conflict. The security situation in the eastern DRC, where Rwandan troops have massed on the border, remains "extremely volatile" and the transitional government is not addressing human rights violations. (Associated Press)

DR of Congo Moves Steadily Towards Elections in 2005 but Challenges Are Formidable (January 6, 2005)

In a report to the Security Council on the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), UN Secretary General Kofi Annan warned that the DRC's neighboring countries "are not promoting the conditions needed to bring peace to the country's troubled eastern region." Ongoing human rights violations and the presence of Rwandan troops in the country's eastern region darken prospects of free and fair elections in 2005. (UN News)

Picture Credit: Associated Press



Same Old Story: A Background Study on Natural Resources in the DRC (July 2004)

Global Witness traces the history of natural resource exploitation in the Democratic Republic of Congo, highlighting the ways in which such exploitation promoted and intensified armed conflict. The report recommends that the Security Council grant the UN Organization Mission in the DRC (MONUC) the authority to "monitor and report on natural resource exploitation" in the country.

A Fragile Peace on a Bloodied Continent (January 29, 2004)

"Can the peace hold in Africa? It depends on whether African states and their supporters continue to be innovative in their search for political solutions," writes UN Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping Operations, Jean-Marie Guehenno. Showcasing Angola, the DRC and Sudan, Guehenno makes the point that when permanent members of the Security Council get involved in a particular crisis, the Council can come up with new approaches to support homegrown peace processes. (International Herald Tribune)

Death Toll Approaches 4M, Says IRC (December 16, 2004)

In spite of a December 2002 peace agreement, over 31,000 people per month die as a result of conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), according to an International Rescue Committee mortality study. The DRC conflict is "worse than any other conflict since the end of World War II," with a total death toll of 3.8 million between August 1998 and April 2004. The international community, however, has failed to provide sufficient resources to alleviate the conflict, and the unstable situation in east DRC portends more fatalities. (Pambazuka)

Failure in Congo (December 13, 2004)

This Washington Post editorial harshly criticizes the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) for "failing miserably" to provide security in eastern DRC and to disarm militias that continue to spark conflict. As the DRC faces aggression from Rwanda, the author asks the Security Council not only to impose sanctions on Kigali should Rwanda refuse to withdraw troops, but also to "take an honest look at the wreck of its mission in this strategic African country."

Rwanda's Secret War (December 10, 2004)

This WW3Report article traces Rwanda's long history of involvement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), revealing the complicated links between regional governments, proxy forces, rebels, natural resource exploitation, and Western interference. Rwanda uses the UN's and the DRC's failure to implement disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of rebel forces as well as continued impunity for rebel and army leaders involved in the 1994 genocide, as reason to interfere militarily in the DRC. The article points to popular anger towards MONUC for its inability to provide security and for alleged troop misconduct.

Rwanda Denies Invading Congo, but UN Sees Massing of Troops (December 3, 2004)

UN officials have gathered growing evidence that Rwandan troops have crossed the border into the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), raising fears of renewed conflict. The Security Council held an emergency meeting to address the issue, and Secretary General Kofi Annan called on Rwanda to "refrain from military intervention" while urging the DRC to redouble efforts to disarm and repatriate militias. 8,000 to 10,000 Hutu militiamen are present in eastern DRC, and Rwanda has scorned UN "voluntary disarmament" efforts, vowing to take matters into its own hands. (Los Angeles Times)

Congo Suffers From 'No-Hope' Dilemma (November 29, 2004)

Low-level fighting continues in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and the transitional government is little more than a corrupt affiliation of warlords whose power does not extend far beyond Kinshasa, says the Globe and Mail. Insiders say national elections, scheduled for June 2005, are "a joke" and could cause large scale violence. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan has recommended expanding the UN peacekeeping force in the DRC but troop increases are unlikely as Western diplomats view the DRC as a "no-hope" situation into which they are unwilling to pour money.

Rwanda Army Masses on Congo Border (November 28, 2004)

Rwanda has deployed thousands of troops along its border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), claiming that Hutu militias are mobilizing to attack. Others, however, say Rwanda only seeks to protect its economic interests in the DRC. Kigali exploits valuable minerals such as cassiterite and tantalite through close cooperation with rebel proxy force, RCD-Goma. (Observer)

Rwanda Slams UN Plan in DR Congo (November 22, 2004)

Rwandan President Paul Kagame dismissed UN calls for Rwandan rebels operating in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to disarm voluntarily, saying, "If you want peace, you have to make war." Kagame's hardline stance worries observers, who note that Rwanda and the DRC have resorted to war over cross-border rebel groups in the past. In spite of UN peacekeepers patrolling the border, the situation remains dangerous. (BBC)

End Arms Flows as Ethnic Tensions Rise (November 19, 2004)

Human Rights Watch reports that local government officials in the Democratic Republic of Congo are delivering guns to civilians in spite of a UN arms embargo. Ethnic tensions between the Banyamulenge and other Congolese ethnic groups run high and the flow of firearms threatens to reignite violence.

Government, UN Troops Deploy to Sensitise Foreign Fighters in Walungu (November 8, 2004)

Congolese and UN troops deployed to South Kivu Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo in an attempt to disarm and repatriate foreign troops situated there. The most notable foreign group is the Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda, accused of participating in the 1994 Rwanda genocide. Although the government has ordered the Congolese army to act with force if necessary, the UN says MONUC's mandate is limited to voluntary disarmament and repatriation. (Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Expert Poll - Is Congo Sliding Into War? (October 18, 2004)

The NGO community expresses serious concerns that war could break out again in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Security remains extremely fragile, particularly in the east, and Congolese civilians continue to suffer attacks. Even though the parties reached a peace deal, they pay the national government little more than "lip service," preferring to keep their armed groups and showing a significant lack of investment in "national unity." (AlertNet)

UN Council to Send More Peacekeepers to Congo (September 29, 2004)

US, British and French experts have drafted a resolution increasing the number of peacekeeping troops in the Democratic Republic of Congo by 5,900. The resolution extends the UN mission's mandate (set to expire October 1) by another six months at which point the Council will again attempt to adjust troop numbers. Secretary General Kofi Annan has called for an additional 13,100 soldiers for the region. (Reuters)

Rwanda Tries to Stop Killings in Darfur (September 27, 2004)

Rwanda is sending 155 soldiers to Sudan to help stop the violence, which Washington has labeled genocide. Rwandan Foreign Minister Charles Murigande strongly criticizes the UN response to the crisis as well as UN peacekeeping efforts in the Democratic Republic of Congo, particularly the "voluntary" disarmament being implemented there. (Independent)

Annan Pushes UN for $1bn Expansion of Congo Force (September 8, 2004)

Due to regional instability and fears of renewed violence, Secretary General Kofi Annan is presenting a proposal to the Security Council to double the number of troops in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Because member states already strained in other conflicts such as Iraq and Burundi are reluctant to provide troops, the proposal is unlikely to succeed. (Independent)

Prevent the Return to Full-scale War in the Congo (August 20, 2004)

In a letter to the Foreign Ministers of Belgium, France, South Africa, the UK and the US, and to Security Council members, President of International Crisis Group Gareth Evans warns of the dangerous possibility of renewed warfare in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ICG calls for boosting the UN peacekeeping mission by giving MONUC more troops and a stronger mandate, and for renewing efforts to monitor the arms embargo and the exploitation of natural resources.

The Other African Crisis (August 13, 2004)

In its report to the Security Council, the Panel of Experts on the DRC denounces Rwanda's interference and tacitly condemns the UN itself for not doing enough to enhance the UN arms embargo. Secretary General Kofi Annan has asked the Security Council to strengthen MONUC by increasing the number of troops and giving it a more robust mandate. (Washington Post)

Are Their Guns Paid For With British Aid? (August 11, 2004)

The UK provides $30 million a year in aid to Rwanda through the Department of Foreign and International Development. Local sources say Rwanda uses some of this money to fund and support rebel groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ireland, Denmark, Belgium, the US and the Netherlands have withdrawn or reduced aid due to "concerns over the misuse of funds." Rwanda is accused of violating a UN weapons embargo and UN teams say they have found Rwandan soldiers inside the DRC in spite of Rwanda's promise to withdraw all troops. (Independent)

Rush for Natural Resources Still Fuels War in Congo (August 9, 2004)

Exploitation of valuable minerals such as cassiterite is fueling conflict in the DRC. In Walikale, a town in Eastern Congo, Rwanda-backed RCD rebels and the Rwandan Army have developed an efficient system transporting resources out of the area and funneling troops and arms in. (Reuters)

UN Eyes Big Changes in Congo Peacekeeping Mission (July 27, 2004)

In response to recent violence in eastern Congo, the Security Council will overhaul and expand its peacekeeping operations in the DRC. Possible changes include increasing the number of peacekeepers and creating a rapid reaction force for immediate responses to "flare-ups" in the region. (Reuters)

UN Peacekeeping: Congo on the Brink of Full-Scale War (July 26, 2004)

In July, the Security Council will vote on renewing the mandate of the United Nations Mission for the Congo. The author argues that the renewal should not simply be "a rubber-stamp approval of the status quo." Rather, the Security Council should strengthen the Mission by increasing peacekeeper presence in the DRC and providing the peacekeepers with equipment necessary to carry out their Chapter VII peacekeeping mandate. (International Herald Tribune)

No Proof of Targeted Killings in East Congo - UN (July 20, 2004)

Rebel forces loyal to General Laurent Nkunda accused the Congolese government of slaughtering over 70 Kinyarwanda-speaking civilians in Eastern Congo. A UN investigative team dismissed these charges of targeted civilian massacres after finding no evidence of such killings. (Alertnet)

UN Report Denounces Rwanda (July 17, 2004)

A United Nations report accused the Rwandan military of backing armed Congolese rebels in their fight against the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Such support violates a UN ban on military and financial support for armed groups in DRC and threatens to undermine an already fragile peace accord. (Washington Post)

Pulling Back from the Brink in the Congo (July 7, 2004)

The International Crisis Group criticizes the UN Mission for the Congo (MONUC) for failing to "develop a strategy that could radically change the environment of political competition" in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Group argues that peace-building in North and South Kivu is vital for lasting stabilization of the country and region. The Kivus are particularly prone to instability because of the high population density and influence of conflicts in neighboring states.

Life in Congo: Another Coup, Another Crisis (June 20, 2004)

Was the attempted coup in the DRC a "real effort" to overthrow President Joseph Kabila, or simply a "political game" played by allies seeking to consolidate the President's power? (New York Times)

Eastern Congo Becoming Civilian Disaster Zone (June 14, 2004)

UN Emergency Relief Coordinator Jan Egeland warns that Eastern Congo is becoming one of the world's largest disasters, as thousands of refugees flee to neighboring countries. He adds that humanitarian access in DRC is "worse than Darfur in western Sudan," and that abuse of civilians is spreading across the Bukavu region. (AlertNet)

UN Troops, Protestors Clash in Congo (June 4, 2004)

UN peacekeepers killed at least two people when they fired on "rampaging protesters" in Kinshasa. The protestors accused the UN of allowing rebel forces to occupy Bukavu. The UN attributed the violence to "unreasonable expectations among Congolese about the U.N. peacekeepers' ability to control the situation." (Washington Post)

DR Congo's Shameful Sex Secret (June 3, 2004)

BBC reports that UN peacekeepers routinely rape women in Bunia's largest refugee camp. Although the UN announced in May that it would launch a full-scale investigation into allegations of sexual abuse, "the gap between the intention to investigate and the reality of that investigation in Bunia remains large."

Ceasefire Agreement Signed and Broken in Bukavu (June 2, 2004)

Rebel forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have broken a ceasefire agreement signed under the auspices of the United Nations. The forces claim to defend the mostly-Tutsi Banyamulenge ethnic group. Many government troops and civilians have fled and sought shelter within the UN Mission's headquarters. (Integrated Regional Information Network)

UN Mission Threatens Action on Hutu Rebels (May 26, 2004)

The eastern Congolese provinces of North and South Kiyu remain volatile. UN peacekeepers stationed in the region have previously refrained from using force. However, UN Under Secretary General Jean-Marie Guehenno has warned that MONUC could soon take military action to disarm Rwandan Hutu rebels because of increased hostilities.(Integrated Regional Information Network)

UN Peacekeeping Chief Urges Reconciliation between DR Congo and Rwanda (May 22, 2004)

Speaking on the renewed conflict between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda, UN Under Secretary General Jean-Marie Guehenno maintained that the two countries must take responsibility for their mutual reconciliation, insisting that the international community can only act in support of such a process. (Agence France Presse)

Aid Agencies Fear New Congo War, Humanitarian Crisis (May 20, 2004)

UN has warned that intensifying divisions within the Congolese government and renewed conflicts between government troops and Rwandan Hutu rebels will bring the country back into war and destabilize the region. (AlertNet)

DR Congo Holds 'Last Chance' Peace Talks With Ituri Warlords (May 11, 2004)

Congolese Vice President Azarias Ruberwa urged the Ituri warlords, in what he called "a last chance meeting for peace," to confirm their commitment to the country's transition to peace and democracy. (Agence France Presse)

The UN in Congo: The Failure of a Peacekeeping Mission (May 10, 2004)

The UN Mission in Congo has failed to bring lasting peace, which civilians have long hoped for. By refusing to condemn Rwanda and Uganda for exploiting Congo's natural resources, the UN is giving warlords a carte blanche to continue their atrocities and to endanger the overall peace process. (International Herald Tribune)

UN Security Council Elects Officials of Sanctions Committee (April 13, 2004)

The Security Council established a sanctions committee to monitor the arms embargo and the illegal exploitation of natural resources in the DRC. Chaired by Ambassador Baali of Algeria, the committee will report regularly to the Council and recommend ways of strengthening the effectiveness of the weapons ban. (Integrated Regional Information Networks)

When Will the Congo Find Peace? (March 25, 2004)

This article has called on the international community to focus more on the ongoing conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and to take into account the interests and desires of the Congolese people when seeking a genuine resolution to the conflict. (Africana)

UN Peacekeepers Not Turning the Other Cheek in Congo (February 15, 2004)

Following a stronger Security Council mandate "to use all necessary means" to accomplish peacekeeping operations, UN peacekeepers are now prepared to use force in addition to traditional peacekeeping measures. Observing the latest conflict in Congo, an independent US think-tank notes that UN peacekeepers in Congo have now been "transformed into peace enforcers." (Associated Press)

DRC Plunder: UK Accused of Failing to Act on Firms Named in UN Report (January 5, 2004)

A number of British MPs and NGOs complain about London's reluctance to pursue the four UK companies named in a UN panel of experts' report on the illegal exploitation of natural resources. Despite Security Council statements urging states to act on the panel's findings, London says it is not able to do anything, as the UN report was "too general in content and relates only to some of the named companies." (East African)



Resolution 1484 (May 30, 2003)

This resolution authorizes deployment of an Interim Emergency Multinational Force to the Congolese town of Bunia. Ethnic violence between the Hema and Lendu militias revived after Ugandan troops withdrew from the area.

Child Soldiers in Eastern DRC (December 12, 2003)

This analysis from the UN Integrated Regional Information Network comments on initiatives to extricate child soldiers from DRC rebel forces. NGOs and UN agencies work together to demobilize minors and send them to school.

Congo Tries to Unite Enemies (November 25, 2003)

Several rebel factions in DR Congo struggled for national control, but a peacetime power-sharing arrangement calls for these factions to create a united Congolese army. According to a foreign diplomat, "everybody wants a slice of the new cake before it all goes." (Christian Science Monitor)

UN DR Congo Report Revealed (November 20, 2003)

According to the BBC, a UN panel of experts report on the illegal exploitation of natural resources in DR Congo revealed that Uganda planned to centralize funding to its militia in Congo's resource-rich northeast. The news raised concern in the UK, which is Uganda's biggest aid donor.

Report of the Secretary-General on the Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (November 17, 2003)

Despite a formal ceasefire and a transitional government comprised of previously warring factions, peacekeeping force MONUC still struggles to protect civilians from violence. This report details MONUC activity, especially in the volatile northeast.

'No More Problem' - Museveni Insists Relations with DR Congo are Good (November 12, 2003)

In this interview with allAfrica, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni speaks about his country's involvement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Museveni has sharp words for a UN Panel of Experts report on the role of Ugandan troops plundering natural resources in DRC.

UN Protest Over Suspected Arms Smuggling in DR Congo (November 5, 2003)

An airplane crash in eastern DR Congo raised the suspicions of UN peacekeeping force MONUC. The airplane allegedly had a cargo of weapons for insurgent groups. Yet the Congolese transitional government has prevented MONUC personnel from examining the crash site. (Agence France Presse)

Global Businesses Profit from Congo War, Groups Charge (October 28, 2003)

International NGOs urge the Security Council to press the US and other western countries to investigate the involvement of transnational corporations in profiteering from the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo. They charge TNCs of fueling and perpetuating the conflict by purchasing the natural resources from warring parties. (OneWorld)

UN Cuts Details of Western Profiteers from Congo Report (October 27, 2003)

A Panel of Experts report on the illegal exploitation of natural resources in DRC may not include full information about the links between government and business if the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) has its way. The DPKO worries that publicizing this information could jeopardize the peace process. (Independent)

Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth in the Democratic Republic of Congo (October 23, 2003)

Individuals and corporations named in the previous report expressed "strong reactions" to accusations of culpability in fuelling conflict in DRC. This report turns its focus away from accountability, instead advising the international community on peace-building measures.

Kabila Seeks More UN Help for DR Congo Peace Process (September 24, 2003)

Joseph Kabila, the President of DR Congo, praised the international community for pacifying the volatile Ituri district. He also added a reminder that southern, mineral-rich provinces face continuing instability. (Agence France Presse)

A Chance for Peace in Congo (September 10, 2003)

This Washington Post editorial urges the international community to punish warlords in Rwanda, Burundi and the DRC. It also urges support of UN peacekeeping missions and aid agencies working to foster stability in a region blighted by 10 years of conflict.

UN Finally Asserting Itself in Congo (September 9, 2003)

DR Congo endured five years of civil war before the UN came to its aid. African commentators express frustration at the divide between the lofty ideals of the UN and its delayed, minimal response to the country's crisis. (Yellow Times)

French Troops Hand Over to UN in Congolese Town (September 1, 2003)

France handed over its duties of protecting Bunia to UN forces. The new MONUC contains more troops and has a stronger mandate. Some of the local population worries about the transition, questioning the ability of the UN to keep the peace as effectively as the French did. (Reuters)

Prospects for Sustained Peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo (August 20, 2003)

Continual violence has troubled DR Congo since Belgian colonization. A Congolese professor argues that strong state institutions and popular involvement in the peace process offer the best chances for lasting peace. (ZNet)

UN Troops Going to DR Congo Will Have Greater Fire Power (August 19, 2003)

MONUC 2, a continuation of the peacekeeping mission in Congo, will have additional troops and military hardware such as attack helicopters. The current mandate, which only permits peacekeepers to fire in self-defense, will also receive an overhaul. (Agence France Presse)

"Congo's International Civil War" (August 5, 2003)

Congo's abundant natural resources and its comparative wealth attracted destabilizing forces from Rwanda and Uganda, its poorer neighbors. The root of interstate conflict in Central Africa lies in the discrepancy in economic dynamics. (Power and Interest News Report)

UN Strengthens DR Congo Force (July 28, 2003)

The Security Council agreed to strengthen the mandate of MONUC and increase the number of peacekeepers to 10,800. The new mandate will allow peacekeepers to protect civilians and aid workers from imminent danger. (BBC)

What the US Can Do for Congo - and Itself (July 24, 2003)

A Congo expert argues that the US should not ignore the continuing crisis in Congo. US involvement in the Sudan peace process provides a model for positive US engagement in Africa. (Christian Science Monitor)

DR Congo Cabinet Fails to Meet (July 19, 2003)

Two newly-appointed ministers of the transitional government in Congo declined to attend its inaugural meeting because they refused to swear allegiance to Congolese President Joseph Kabila. The BBC reports that this action indicates renewed political power-jockeying.

The Failure of an African Political Leadership (July 18, 2003)

In a ZNet interview, the leader of Rally for Congolese Democracy comments on the transitional government, the Security Council-authorized interim force, the role of blood diamonds in fuelling conflict and other issues.

DR Congo Swears In Transitional Government Ministers (July 15, 2003)

Crowds in Kinshasa jeered the arrival of Jean-Pierre Bemba and Roger Lumbala, both of whom will participate in the transitional government of Congo. Bemba and Lumbala headed the principal rebel groups that plunged the country into civil war in 1998. (Agence France Press)

More UN Congo Peacekeepers Get US OK (July 9, 2003)

The US administration finally endorsed the recommendation by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to increase current peacekeeping forces in Congo by 2,100 troops. (Associated Press)

Ituri "Covered in Blood": Ethnically Targeted Violence in Northeastern DR Congo (July, 2003)

This Human Rights Watch report exposes the web of involvement between external and internal actors who complicate and perpetuate violence in Congo. According to an Africa Division expert, "agreements between governments don't do much good when the government armies are just passing their guns on to local militias."

Doing It Right in Congo (June 25, 2003)

Congo's four-year civil war killed over three million people. Deaths continue despite the presence of UN peacekeepers. The New York Times argues that MONUC will not succeed without more troops and a stronger mandate.

A Blood-Soaked Final Chapter (June 22, 2003)

Retired Canadian General Maurice Baril works with UN peacekeepers in persuading Congolese militia factions to form a unified army. According to Baril, creating a state army is a slow but necessary part of establishing peace in Congo and Central Africa. (Toronto Star)

What's Behind the Killing in Central Africa? (June 13, 2003)

The Socialist Worker argues that Congo's continuing violence has its roots in a legacy of colonial brutality and foreign-supported dictators. It provides a history of foreign involvement in Congo to prove that new turmoil does not derive from indigenous ethnic hatreds.

Congo Crisis: Military Intervention in Ituri (June 13, 2003)

This report by International Crisis Group calls for more substantial MONUC forces operating under a stronger mandate and wider scope to prevent genocide. It also highlights the role of Congo's neighbors, such as Rwanda and Uganda, in inflaming the conflict.

Politics of Deception in Congo (June 12, 2003)

The Yellow Times accuses the UN of "gesture politics" for limiting its peacekeeping aid to one small part of a country riddled with violence. The mandate of the mission does not extend to disarming the militias, although locals agree that this policy could prevent future violence.

UN 'Mission' Probing DRC (June 12, 2003)

The Security Council Mission to Central Africa heard plans for a transitional government in DRC. French Ambassador Jean-Marc de la Sabliere, leader of the Mission, confirmed a future meeting with the Ituri interim administration, calling it "the only legitimate body [in the province]." (News24)

Won't Disarm Congo Armies, UN Force Declares (June 10, 2003)

Against the wishes of humanitarian aid agencies, a French-led peacekeeping force will not disarm Congo's militias. The commander of the force emphasized Rwanda and Uganda's role in destabilizing Congo and their responsibility in restoring the peace. (New York Times)

As Congo Collapses, France Steps In (June 9, 2003)

Aid workers in Congo worry that supplemental MONUC forces will not be effective without a strong mandate to protect and defend civilians from militia violence. Father Jan Mol, a priest in the country, proposes a total disarmament of Ituri province to end the violence. (Christian Science Monitor)

Letter to Security Council Members on their Mission to Central Africa (June 6, 2003)

Human Rights Watch urges the Security Council mission to Central Africa to ensure the protection of civilians in the DRC and Burundi. Nominal peace agreements exist in both countries, but continuing conflict often terrorizes civilians.

World Can Put Quick End to Carnage in the Congo (June 2, 2003)

Gwynne Dyer proposes that the UN sends at least 40,000 troops to Congo. Dyer argues that a large force with a strong mandate and a two-year commitment can restore stability and concentrate on Congo's problems of famine and internal displacement. (Toronto Star)

Whole Congo Force Needs Tough Mandate -UN Official (June 1, 2003)

Peacekeepers in Congo have been unable to prevent numerous civilian deaths. The deputy head of MONUC explains that peacekeepers cannot succeed in a purely defensive capacity. He calls for a strong mandate that allows peacekeepers to initiate combat for civilian protection. (Reuters)

The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (June, 2003)

This Watchlist report offers urgent and ongoing recommendations for action to the Security Council, MONUC and other parties to alleviate the suffering of children in the conflict-riddled DRC.

UN Approves Force Deployment in Congo (May 30, 2003)

After two weeks of negotiations, the Security Council agreed to send an international force to Congo. French troops will comprise half of the force of 1,400 despite initial opposition by the President of Rwanda to French participation. (Associated Press)

There Will Be No Excuses For Not Knowing (May 25, 2003)

Ethnic rivalry, cross-border interference and the burden of colonial history all contribute to ongoing violence in Congo. The Observer asks the UN to contribute more troops and resources to MONUC to prevent these factors from culminating in genocide.

UN's Focus Diminishes Efforts on Africa's Troubles (May 25, 2003)

Colum Lynch criticizes the Security Council for devoting excessive time to global terrorism while neglecting a looming humanitarian crisis in Africa. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees challenges the Security Council to commit itself to democracy in Africa. (Washington Post)

British Troops May Go to Congo after UN Uncovers Massacre (May 22, 2003)

UK Prime Minister Tony Blair confirmed his interest in sending British troops to supplement UN peacekeeping forces in Congo. Blair, who once called Africa's troubles "a scar on the conscience of the world", stressed the importance of a well-organized and well-supported force. (Independent)

UN Ignoring Crisis in Western Africa (May 21, 2003)

The UN Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator remarks that recent fighting in Bunia shows "shades of Rwanda in 1994". Thalif Deen worries that in the aftermath of the war in Iraq, the international community forgets about worsening conditions in Congo. (Inter Press Service)

Protection, Water and Food are Priorities in Bunia (May 13, 2003)

Oxfam and other humanitarian aid agencies call attention to crucial shortages in the wake of recent violence in northeast Congo. The agencies repeated the plea for an increase of MONUC forces to prevent current shortages from reaching crisis levels. (AllAfrica)

Congo's War, the UN's Shame (May 2, 2003)

Critical of the UN Peacekeeping mission in the DRC, the Wall Street Journal labels MONUC a "paper tiger." The mission will remain ineffective and understaffed without strong support from the Security Council. Such support is not forthcoming as long as key members perceive no significant strategic gains in improving Congo's situation.

DRC: Time to Stop the Carnage and Economic Exploitation (April 29, 2003)

The exploitation of Natural Resources is the 'biggest single factor' in perpetuating violence in the DRC, says Amnesty International. The organization urges the international community to take "immediate action" to stop the violation of human rights. (Amnesty International)

Chaos in Congo Suits Many Parties Just Fine (April 20, 2003)

The Democratic Republic of Congo is Balkanized and often occupied by foreign armies. According to Adam Hochschild, warlords, foreign governments and multinational corporations have no interest in strengthening the central government of this resource-rich country. (New York Times)

No End to the Slaughter As Hutus Refuse to Quit Congo (April 13, 2003)

While the Hutus remain in Congo, so will Rwanda, says Rwanda's President Paul Kagame. It is all bad news for the war-ravaged people of eastern Congo, caught between two vicious foreign enemies and unprotected by the UN mission. (Observer)

Conflict in Congo Has Killed 4.7m, Charity Says (April 8, 2003)

Congo's war represents the tragedy of modern times, and the world has consistently found reasons to overlook it, says the director of the International Rescue Committee. Rwanda's parliament authorized a re-invasion of Congo with at least 5,000 troops, and UN disarmament efforts have failed. (Guardian)

UN Finds Graves of 1,000 Villagers in Congo Massacre (April 7, 2003)

The DRC suffered the worst atrocity in four and a half years of civil war, says a spokesman for the UN mission. Given that Congolese rebels have split into more than a dozen factions, with the participation of Ugandan and Rwandan forces, no one is clear who carried out the attacks. (Associated Press)

DRC Set to Agree on Democracy (March 31, 2003)

"The DRC is finally on its way to democracy," says a delegate at the negotiations in Pretoria for a final agreement to end five years of conflict. However from six rebel groups negotiating the agreement, only one movement has signed the deal. (News24)

Rights Groups Ask for UN Inquiry into Congo Conflict (March 31, 2003)

Events in other parts of the world are distracting attention from the tragedies in the DRC. "The International community just focuses on Iraq, while millions of people are dying in the Democratic Republic of Congo," says an Amnesty official. (Voa News)

UN Urges Uganda, Rwanda to Talk (March 26, 2003)

The UN asks Presidents Yoweri Museveni and Paul Kagame to resolve their differences peacefully. The area will not find peace until a central government authority in the DRC is installed, says the UN's envoy to Congo. (New Vision)

Let Peace Prevail (March 24, 2003)

Since the UN is now engrossed in the US war on Iraq, the global body is not doing much to end the fighting in the DRC. However, a flare-up in the region would have far-reaching consequences for the security of Africa, making the maintenance of peace imperative. (Daily Nation)

Rwanda Threatens to Send Troops to Congo (March 15, 2003)

Rwanda will send troops back to Congo if the Ugandan army doesn't withdraw from this country. The UN has not observed movement by Ugandan government forces "but that doesn't mean they are not there,'' says a spokeswoman for the UN mission monitoring the 1999 cease-fire in Congo. (Associated Press)

Factions Accept Peacekeeping Force (March 11, 2003)

Rebel groups and the DRC government have agreed to establish a neutral, international force of between 600 to 1000 soldiers for the proposed transitional government in the country. Donor nations have already agreed to fund the force, says a UN envoy. (South African Press Association)

"No Evidence of Illegal Acts", Says a Belgian Pillage Study (February 22, 2003)

A Belgian commission concluded that no illegal acts were committed by the companies accused by the UN for the exploitation of natural resources in the DRC. The conclusion is aimed to protect "Belgian political and economic interests in the region," say opposition senators. (Allafrica)

Rapes, Killings Continue in Congo Despite Pact-UN (February 21, 2003)

Absolute impunity still affects millions of people in the DRC, say UN officials. The donors become tired of supporting humanitarian programs. The situation of the country "may have fallen into the category of forgotten crises." (Reuters)

Rwanda Denies DRC Plundering (February 18, 2003)

Rwandan Commerce Minister Dr Alexandre Lyambabaje accuses the UN of lacking evidence in its accusations for the exploitation of natural resources in the DRC. The UN is not playing its role, he says. (BBC)

China to Aid UN Peace Mission in Congo (January 31, 2003)

Despite its permanent seat on the UN Security Council, China did not take part in peacekeeping missions until 1989. Recently, Beijing announced plans to send more than 200 engineers and medics on a UN peacekeeping mission to Congo. (Associated Press).

Talk of 'Emergencies' Misses the Point (January 31, 2003)

Despite the fact the world focuses mainly on the Iraq crisis, Africa remains in "a horrible mess." If countries are unable to deal with the root causes and find solutions to African conflicts, they should at least recognize the problem, says the International Herald Tribune.

The Kivus: The Forgotten Crucible of the Congo Conflict (January 24, 2003)

Instability in the Kivu region threatens peace plans for the DRC, and the planned contingent of 3,000 new UN peacekeepers will not be enough to make a difference. This International Crisis Group report contains "important new information" on the area in conflict.

Peace Process Threatened by Uganda and Rwanda Militias, Warns DRC Negotiator (January 21, 2003)

Violence backed by Rwanda and Uganda may disrupt the peace process in the DRC. The Congolese government asks the UN to increase the peacekeeping force in the country. (Allafrica)

Thousands of Congolese Flee to Burundi (January 8, 2003)

As a result of the fighting in the DRC, at least 8,500 Congolese refugees have arrived in Burundi, the UN reports. The hostility comes just three weeks after the DRC government signed of a peace deal with major rebel groups to end the four-year war in December 2002. (Irin News)

DRC: Thirty Sentenced to Death After Unfair Trial (January 7, 2003)

Thirty defendants received death sentences after an unfair trial for their alleged role in the assassination of President Laurent-Desiré Kabila. The sentences violate a personal commitment made by President Kabila to the UN Commission for Human Rights in March 2001 to hold a moratorium on the death penalty. (Amnesty International)



Final Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (October 15, 2002)

The UN report on the DRC denounces the existence of criminal groups linked to the armies of Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe and elite networks of political, military and businesspeople that illegally exploit coltan and diamonds, causing a dire humanitarian situation.

Hard Currency: The Criminalized Diamond Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its Neighbors (June, 2002)

This report makes apparent "the irony ( ... ) that the Democratic Republic of the Congo is ranked as one of the world's top ten diamond producers but remains one of the least developed countries." (Partnership Africa Canada)

Storm Clouds Over Sun City: The Urgent Need to Recast the Congolese Peace Process (May 14, 2002)

On April 19, 2002, the DRC President Kabila and the Movement for the Liberation of Congo leader Jean-Pierre Bemba signed an agreement that marked the end of the inter-Congolese dialogue. The accord rallied international support for the "Kabila-Bemba" and isolated the Rwandan backed Rally for Congolese Democracy.(International Crisis Group)

Stolen Goods: Coltan and Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Spring 2002)

International competition for scarce resources in general, and for coltan in particular, is a key factor in the lack of state stability and the continuation of war in the DRC.(SAIS Review)

The War Was Following Me (December, 2002)

Médecins Sans Frontií¨res (MSF) reports several testimonies of the unthinkable hardships and extraordinary courage of the Congolese people as they rebuild their lives over and over again due to the long civil war.(Read part 2)

Congo Peace Deal Signed (December 17, 2002)

DRC government, rebels and opposition parties signed a peace agreement to end four years of civil war. The deal will set up a transitional government until the DRC holds its first ever democratic election. (Guardian)

DR Congo Deal: Reaction in Quotes (December 17, 2002)

DRC peace deal to end a four-year receives a cautious welcome throughout Africa, but will be difficult to implement. (BBC)

DRC Army Stages Mass Maneuvers, Fears Rebel Trouble (December 16, 2002)

DRC rebel groups are unhappy with the government agreement reached in Pretoria while concern for new arm conflicts arise. (Tehran Times)

Diamonds Are a Tyrant's Best Friend (December 8, 2002)

Business Report looks at a little-known diamond company that the UN report on DRC accuses of "trading with the wrong kind of people" and "the wrong kind of diamonds."

UN Team in DR Congo Welcomes Decision to Boost the Force (December 5, 2002)

After the people of DRC and humanitarian agencies called for an increase in the UN military presence in the region, the UN Security Council decided unanimously to send 3,000 additional peacekeepers. (Agence France Presse)

Monuc to Verify Withdrawal of Rwandan Troops (December 5, 2002)

Despite Rwanda's commitment to withdraw its troops from the country, almost 3,000 Rwandan soldiers remain in DRC. The UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) will look into the alleged presence of militaries in the region. (Allafrica)

Congolese Struggle to Recover From Years of War (November 25, 2002)

Hunger and a lack of running water and electricity are critical problems for many in DRC. However, a UN administrator says "we're not here for development, we're here to observe the peace." (Tehran Times)

How a Perfect English Gent in a Rural Idyll Profits From a Bloody African War (November 24, 2002)

An Observer investigation has uncovered evidence that a British citizen, already accused of selling armaments by a UN report, has made a fortune from the bloody civil war in DRC that has claimed millions of lives.

DRC Negotiators Resolve Most Points of Peace Agreement: UN Mediator (November 21, 2002)

The peace process in the DRC requires a complex mediation with a UN special envoy. With eight groups involved, this large, many-sided conflict has left some 2.5 million dead.

Congo Government Troops Kill 100 Civilians (November 21, 2002)

Witnesses and human rights groups denounce government troops in the DRC for killing at least 100 civilians. The UN peacekeeping operation is aware of the situation but could not confirm reports of casualty figures. (Reuters)

Congo Suspends Accused Officials (November 12, 2002)

Congolese President Joseph Kabila has suspended all officials accused in the UN report on natural resources. The UN report says those responsible for the plundering have made postwar arrangements to keep trading Congo's natural wealth. (Associated Press)

UN Must Prevent "Ethnic Cleansing" in Ituri (October 31, 2002)

Human Rights Watch urges the UN to increase the size of the MONUC force in the DRC. According to HRW, hundreds of civilians have been killed and about two million have been displaced because of their political loyalties and ethnic affiliations.

A Chance for Congo (October 29, 2002)

According to a UN report, Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe have not really left Congo. As the three neighbors "will not relinquish voluntarily," the Pretoria talks represent a chance for the DRC to create an interim government with two major rebel groups. (Washington Post)

UN Security Council is Told Peace in Democratic Republic of Congo Needs Solution of Economic Issue (October 25, 2002)

A UN Panel's final report on the DRC recommends organizing a conference on peace, security, democracy and sustainable development that would discuss compensation for the Congolese people and prosecution of those responsible for plundering diamonds. (Presswire)

DRC Loses $8m Pa on Diamonds (October 23, 2002)

The Congolese Deputy Minister for Mining and Oil estimates that his country, the world's leading diamond producer, has lost $800m a year because neighboring countries illegally extract diamonds. (News24)

Rwanda Rejects UN Report on DR Congo Looting as Full of Lies (October 23, 2002)

The Rwandan government has rejected the UN report on the looting of the DRC "in its entirety," arguing that the report attempts "to cover up the failures of the international community to prevent and stop the 1994 genocide." (Agence France Presse)

Multinationals in Scramble for Congo's Wealth (October 22, 2002)

According to a UN report, dozens of multinational corporations, including Barclays Bank, De Beers and Anglo American, have violated ethical guidelines in dealing with criminal networks and facilitated the plunder of the Democratic Republic of Congo's wealth. (Guardian)

Sanctions Urged for Congo Plunderers (October 17, 2002)

Despite the withdrawal of foreign troops from the DRC and UN sanctions, "elite networks" including 85 multinationals in South Africa, Europe and the US continue to plunder Congolese resources. In its report, a panel of experts urges the Security Council to extend the sanctions. (BBC)

UN Must Take Urgent Steps to Prevent Genocide (October 17, 2002)

Amnesty International urges the Security Council to take urgent action to stop mass killings of civilians based on ethnic identity in the DRC. The organization recommends that the Council increase the number of MONUC observers. (Press Release)

The UN Has Tough Job to Do in the DRC (October 10, 2002)

The end of armed foreign intervention in the DRC may not lead to an end to domestic conflicts. Although the West presses for peace to protect its interests in the country's natural resources, various rebel groups may see that as an opportunity to reorganize. (New Vision)

Hails Rwanda Pullout, Calls for UN Verification (September 19, 2002)

Congolese Foreign Minister, Leonard She Okitundu, remains skeptical about the expected Rwandan troop withdrawal in his country and asks for a UN verification. (Vanguard)

War Crimes in Kisangani (August 20, 2002)

In a new report, Human Rights Watch identifies top commanders of the Rwandan-backed RCD rebel movement implicated in the massacres in Kisangani, and calls for their prosecution for war crimes. The report also questions whether the UN Mission in the DRC (MONUC) "failed to carry out its mandate to protect civilians."

Congo War: Is the End in Sight? (August 8, 2002)

Foreign Policy in Focus questions the viability of the peace agreement signed between the DRC and Rwanda due to "interlocking conflicts on the local, national, regional, and global levels."

Congo Peace Pact Needs More Than Goodwill (July 31, 2002)

"A pact between Congo and Rwanda strikes at the heart of Africa's biggest war but analysts query whether international backing will be enough to make the deal hold and end a bloody free-for-all over Congo's riches." (Reuters)

A Glimmer of Hope (July 30, 2002)

As the third peace deal in Africa this year after Angola and Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo signed a pact with its most powerful enemy, Rwanda. But will these peace negotiations hold while widespread poverty and conflict over natural resources still invade the continent? (Economist)

Kabila And Kagame Sign Ambitious Congo Peace Deal (July 30, 2002)

Calling it a "bright day for the African continent," the Democratic republic of Congo and Rwanda have signed an ambitious peace agreement which aims to unlock the impasse in Central Africa. (AllAfrica)

World Court Rejects Congo Request to Intervene Against Rwanda (July 10, 2002)

The ICJ has rejected the request presented by Congo that Rwanda withdraw its forces from Congolese territory, on the claim that the Court has "no legal basis to intervene." However, Rwanda's demand to "strike the dispute from its docket" has also been rejected. (Associated Press)

No Meaningful Sign Of Rwanda Peace Commitment, Says Congo Civil Society Leader (June 28, 2002)

In an interview with allAfrica, Mr. Nkunzimwami of the Civil Society of South Kivu, denies Rwanda's claims that the DRC government supports the Interahamwe Hutu militias. He suggests that conflicts in Burundi and Brazzaville exacerbate the DRC conflict.

International Spotlight Falls on Actions of Rwandan Troops in DR Congo (June 12, 2002)

One World Africa has reported that the International Court of Justice "is scheduled to consider accusations by the government of Democratic Republic of the Congo that its neighbor Rwanda has committed "large-scale human slaughter" since the outbreak of conflict in the mineral-rich Central African country in 1998."

Hard Currency: The Criminalized Diamond Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its Neighbors (June, 2002)

This report makes apparent "the irony ( ... ) that the Democratic Republic of the Congo is ranked as one of the world's top ten diamond producers but remains one of the least developed countries." (Partnership Africa Canada)

Stolen Goods: Coltan and Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Spring 2002)

International competition for scarce resources in general, and for coltan in particular, is a key factor in the lack of state stability and the continuation of war in the DRC.(SAIS Review)

Congo: Kisangani Residents Again Under Fire (May 24, 2002)

Soldiers of the Rwandan-backed Congolese Rally for Democracy rounded up and executed suspected backers of a short-lived mutiny in Kisangani, Congo. The UN peacekeepers failed to intervene but were called upon to investigate the massacre. (Human Rights Watch)

Interim Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (May 22, 2002)

Rwanda to Study UN's "Radical Proposal" On Solving DRCongo Crisis (May 6, 2002)

Patrick Mazimpaka, the Rwandan presidential advisor on the DR Congo, considers a UN proposal that would urge countries affected by armed groups operating in Congo, mainly Rwanda, Uganda, and Burundi, to work with the Congolese forces in disarmament efforts. (BBC Monitoring)

UN Security Council Proposes Regional Conference (May 2, 2002)

The Security Council continues to urge for the demilitarization of Kinsangani. "This means withdrawal of not only Ugandan and Rwandan forces but also RCD and MLC forces," insists Jean-David Levitte, the French Ambassador to the UN. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Focus on the Results of the Inter-Congolese Dialogue (April 26, 2002)

A comprehensive report on the outcome of the inter-Congolese dialogue. More than 70 percent of the delegates signed an agreement reached between the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the rebel Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC). (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

UN Urges DRC Government to Renew Talks (April 25, 2002)

Namaga Ngongi, the UN envoy to the DRC, calls on the Kinshasa government and other signatories to a recent power-sharing agreement to "renew talks with Rwandan-backed rebels who have rejected the pact." (Agence France Presse)

Rebel RCD Dismisses Agreement Between Government And MLC (April 20, 2002)

The rebel group, the Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD), dismisses "as a joke" the power-sharing agreement signed between the Kinshasa government and the rebel Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC). (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Storm Clouds Over Sun City: The Urgent Need to Recast the Congolese Peace Process (May 14, 2002)

On April 19, 2002, the DRC President Kabila and the Movement for the Liberation of Congo leader Jean-Pierre Bemba signed an agreement that marked the end of the inter-Congolese dialogue. The accord rallied international support for the "Kabila-Bemba" and isolated the Rwandan backed Rally for Congolese Democracy.

Rescue Bid for DR Congo Talks (April 18, 2002)

The Rwandan-backed rebel group, Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD), rejects an agreement between the Kinshasa government and the Movement for the Liberation of Congo (LMC), a rebel group backed by Uganda. Under the agreement, Jean-Pierre Bemba would become prime minister in a government of national unity with President Joseph Kabila remaining head of state. (BBC News)

DR Congo Peace Talks Extended (April 11, 2002)

Peace talks between the DRC government and rebel factions are deadlocked on the issue of whether the Congolese President, Joseph Kabila, should stay in office. (BBC News)

Congo Government Ready To Share Power With Rebels (April 2, 2002)

The DRC government will share power with rebels fighting in the civil war on the condition that rebel-held territories return to Kinshasa control. (Reuters)

UN Demands That Congo Rebels Withdraw From Seized City (March 20, 2002)

The Security Council strongly urges Rwandan-backed rebel forces to withdraw from Moliro, a major port town on Lake Tanganyika. The French Ambassador, Jean-David Levitte, recently informed the Security Council that Rwanda has 10,000 troops in the Congo. (New York Times)

Security Council Demands End to Fighting in Congo ( March 15, 2002)

Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping Jean-Marie Guéhenno pressed the UN Security Council for a Congolese national and regional reconciliation because "there will not be a stable peace…as there is no trust between the key players in the region." (Associated Press)

Is It Time Up for UN in Africa? (March 7, 2002)

In light of the deteriorating situation in the DRC, the African New Vision severely criticizes the ineffectiveness of the UN Security Council when it comes to African conflicts.

Fighting Resumed in Eastern Congo Kinshasa (March 5, 2002)

Despite the ongoing inter-Congolese dialogue in Sun City, South Africa, fighting has resumed in the eastern part of Congo Kinshasa, threatening to undermine the peace process. (Afrol News)

Council Urges "Constructive Spirit" in Peace Talks (February 20, 2002)

Security Council President, Ambassador Adolfo Aguilar Zinser of Mexico, encourages all parties in the DRC conflict to participate constructively in upcoming peace talks in South Africa. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

DR Congo Rebels Boycott Peace Talks (February 19, 2002)

Jean-Pierre Bemba, leader of the Congolese Liberation Front, will not participate in peace talks that will include the government, rebel groups and the political opposition. Bemba claims that many of the political parties invited to the talks are "fronts for the government of President Joseph Kabila." (BBC News)

Ethnic Clashes Threaten Congo Peace Talks (February 8, 2002)

UN special representative Amos Ngongi reports that rival rebel leaders in the DRC are exploiting tribal differences and undermining the country's fragile peace process. (Reuters)

DR Congo Wants UN To Probe Foreign Troops on its Soil (January 29, 2002)

The DRC asks the UN to launch an inquiry into the occupation of some of the country's regions by foreign armies. The DRC wants a UN commission to investigate whether Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi have legitimate reasons to occupy the country. (Agence France Presse)

Supporting the War Economy in the DRC: European Companies and the Coltan Trade (January 2002)

A report by International Peace Information Service investigates the involvement of European companies in the coltan trade and named in the report of the UN Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources of the DRC.

NGOs Call for Embargo on Coltan from DRC War Zones (January 14, 2002)

Non-governmental organizations criticize the UN decision to postpone the embargo on coltan from the DRC, arguing that coltan revenues help finance guerilla warefare. (Agence France Presse)

Bujumbura to Withdraw Troops from Congo (January 9, 2002)

The government of Burundi made a formal commitment to withdraw its troops from the DRC, in exchange for a pledge from Kinshasa to end support for Burundian rebels. The removal of foreign troops from the DRC is an integral aspect of the ongoing peace process. (UN Integrated Regional Information Network)



UN Fears Cyprus-style Division in Congo (June 28, 2001)

Despite DRC President Joseph Kabila's willingness to cooperate with the international community, many hurdles litter the road to peace in the Great Lakes region. The biggest remaining obstacles are the armed rebel insurgents and the DRC's neighboring countries, both of which profit considerably from plundering the Congo's natural resources. (Guardian)
The report investigates the illegal exploitation of diamonds, cobalt, coltan, gold and other lucrative resources in the DRC. It recommends to the Security Council a temporary embargo on natural resources imported and exported from Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi.

DRCongo's War: Who Is Involved and Why (January 25, 2001)

This article explains the regional background behind the tangled situation in the DRC, including the different neighboring countries involved in the conflict. A good introduction. (BBC)

Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (April 12, 2001)

Disarmament in the Congo (December 14, 2001)

The International Crisis Group asserts that without considerable improvement in international support, the DRC may not survive. This report addresses in detail one of the factors critically necessary for peace – the process of disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, reintegration, and resettlement (DDRRR) of the armed rebel groups.

UN Extends Probe on Looting of Congo's Minerals (December 19, 2001)

The investigation of the plundering of the DRC's natural resources will be extended for six months. The Security Council asks the investigating committee to re-submit specific recommendations following extended data analyses. (Reuters)

No End in Sight to Congo Crisis (December 13, 2001)

Uganda is redeploying troops in the DRC after warning the UN Military Observer Mission for Congo (UNMIC) that areas previously handed over to the UN were degenerating into anarchy. (The East African)

‘Major breakthrough' Opens Way To New DR Congo Peace Talks (December 9, 2001)

The two main rebel movements in the DRC and representatives of President Joseph Kabila agree on who will participate in the next round of talks in January 2002 in South Africa. (Agence France Presse)

Nigeria hosts UN peace talks on DR Congo (December 7, 2001)

A UN-sponsored meeting, taking place behind closed doors, aims at restarting a stalled peace process between rebels and government officials from the Democratic Republic of Congo. (Agence France Presse)

UN Confirms Rwandan Troop Reinforcements in East (December 6, 2001)

The UN is concerned about the arrival of up to 2,000 Rwandan-backed soldiers in the eastern region of the DRC. "This deployment foreshadows a major confrontation in the region," says Amos Namanga Ngongi, the US Special Representative for the DRC. (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks)

Militias Concern EU Team (November 26, 2001)

A delegation from the European Union says peace in the Democratic Republic of the Congo could depend on the disarmament of Hutu soldiers. (Business Day)

Congo Names Governors For Rebel Regions (November 26, 2001)

Opponents say the decision by Congolese President Joseph Kabila to name governors for rebel-controlled provinces threatens to upset the fragile peace process. (Reuters)

UN Group Urges Ban On Imports From Congo (November 24, 2001)

A new UN report finds a clear link between the Congolese conflict and the exploitation of natural resources. The report calls for a temporary ban on the purchase of minerals, timber and coffee from regions of the Congo under the control of foreign armies. (Washington Post )

DRC: Mixed Reaction to UN Report on Resource Exploitation (November 22, 2001)

Officials of the DRC reacted angrily to the allegation that Zimbabwe, Angola, and Namibia are participants in the exploitation of natural resources. They challenged the veracity of the UN report, claiming that the aforementioned countries intervened at the request of a legitimate DRC government. (IRIN)

EU Move on Congolese Peace (November 21, 2001)

A European Union team will address stalemate in the Democratic Republic of Congo's peace process after the government walked out of talks with rebel groups. (BBC News)

The Inter-Congolese Diaologue (November 19, 2001)

The failure of the inter-Congolese dialogue in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in October was foreseeable, according to a new report from the (International Crisis Group) that analyses the impasse in the peace process.

'Excessive Caution' by UN Threatening Democratic Republic of Congo Peace

(November 16, 2001)

The Foreign Minister of the Democratic Republic of Congo expressed dismay that the UN peacekeeping operation's step-by-step approach is "indistinguishable from lack of commitment and or confidence in the DRC peace process." (Agence France Presse)

Kabila Expects Peace in Congo (November 13, 2001)

President Joseph Kabila welcomed the Security Council resolution calling for the withdrawal, disarmament and repatriation of all foreign forces. Kabila seems very optimistic about the peace process and expects the end of the war by next year.(Business Day)

Addendum to the Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (November 10, 2001)

This report describes how a number of neighboring countries are perpetuating the war in the DRC by illegally exploiting its natural resources. It calls for a moratorium on third-country exports of Congolese minerals, and suggests the possibility of future sanctions.

UN Wants All Foreign Troops Out of Congo (November 9, 2001)

After meeting with parties to the Lusaka agreement, the Security Council unanimously approved a resolution opening a new phase in the UN peacekeeping mission in the DRC.(Associated Press)

Congo's Leader Fears His Nation's Crisis Has Lost UN Priority (November 2, 2001)

President Joseph Kabila argues that the new focus on Afghanistan has prompted the UN to loose interest in the DRC conflict despite the "clear-cut" situation: Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda invaded the Congo to access its natural resources. (New York Times)

Kabila Tells the West, "Promise Me Peace, Not Money, Hypocrisy and Lip Service" (November 1, 2001)

Congolese President Joseph Kabila discusses relations with the West, peace, conflict and the hopes and prospects for his divided nation of 50 million citizens. (

DR Congo: Which Way Forward? (October 31, 2001)

The Daily Trust explains why the collapse of the inter-Congolese peace talks is a positive sign, and advocates a "no victor, no vanquished" policy to resolve the multi-sided conflict.

Security Council Endorses New Phase in Congo's Peace Process (October 24, 2001)

The UN peacekeeping mission's step-by-step withdrawal plan is "too cautious and limited in scope", says the UN Ambassador from Namibia.(Associated Press)

UN Enters Disputed DRC Town (October 26, 2001)

The United Nations Observer Mission to Congo (MONUC) is intervening in a conflict between Uganda and Rwanda over the Congolese town Kanyabayonga. (New Vision)

Congo Peace Talks (October 16, 2001)

The war torn Democratic Republic of the Congo is a country only in name. Some 380 delegates are meeting this week to discuss the possibility for a unified state and national reconciliation. As many as 2.5 million people may have died since fighting began in 1998. (Economist)

Peace Talks to End War in Congo Finally Begin (October 16, 2001)

DRC President Joseph Kabila was absent from the inter-Congolese dialogue, placing further doubts on the affectiveness of the peace talks. (New York Times)

UN Security Council Urges Warring Parties To Cease Hostilities in DR Congo (October 11, 2001)

Any form of support to the armed groups in eastern DR Congo must cease and all foreign troops must withdraw from Congolese territory in accordance with the Lusaka Cease-fire Agreement and UN resolutions, reiterates the Council. (Xinhua)

DR Congo Talks in Addis on Monday, Take Off In Earnest Later (October 9, 2001)

Inter-Congolese talks organized by the United Nations' Economic Commission for Africa are vital for establishing "good governance, democratic elections, and a new constitution" in the DRC. (AFP)

MONUC and the Road to Peace (October, 2001)

This monograph aims to enhance understanding of the complex array of actors and actions that underpin the current Congolese ‘peace process'. It examines the key protagonists and their interests in the DRC, the deployment of MONUC, and the attempts to initiate the Inter-Congolese Dialogue. (Institute for Security Studies)

What is Coltan? (September 9, 2001)

Coltan – short for columbite-tantalite – is a metallic ore found in large quantities in the Eastern Congo. When refined, coltan becomes a highly efficient conductor and therefore an indispensable item for computer hardware. Rebels in the Congo use the substantial revenues generated from mining coltan to sustain their war efforts. (ABC News)

Zimbabwe's Resource Colonialism Threatens Peace Process (August 26, 2001)

As a Global Witness report reveals, the Zimbabwe government has brokered a secret deal for the exploitation of the DRC's timber resources. Zimbabwe appears to have no intention of withdrawing its troops from the DRC in the foreseeable future, thus threatening the Lusaka Peace Process.

Peace Will Lure Investors: Kabila (August 22, 2001)

During his visit to Namibia, President Joseph Kabila expressed his commitment to ending the civil war and creating an environment conducive to foreign investment in the DRC's mineral resources. (Reuters)

Dialogue to Take Place in the Next Six Months (August 21, 2001)

The Security Council welcomed the preparatory meeting for the inter-Congolese dialogue which will take place within six months, and encouraged the parties to make all efforts to ensure the success of the session. (IRIN)

Taking the Congo Test (August 2, 2001)

UN Secretary General Kofi Annan will become personally involved with the DRC peace process, as he visits the region next month. This editorial argues that mediation from the UN, G-8 and African countries will be necessary to bring about peace in the war-ravaged Congo. (Guardian)

Is the World Soft on Kabila? (July 28, 2001)

After six months in power, DRC leader Joseph Kabila has found favor among Western nations. However, there is strong dissent at home, particularly among those who worry that Mr. Kabila's de facto presidency and support from the international community has stifled democracy. (Economist)

Militia Clashes Threaten Congo Peace Process (July 18, 2001)

Although the DRC peace process has made substantial progress since President Joseph Kabila succeeded his murdered father in January, the commander of the UN force in Congo has announced that fighting between militia groups may resume unless the rebels are disarmed. (Reuters)

Rwanda Justifies Role in Congo (July 17, 2001)

Rwanda claimed a victory in its efforts to justify its role in the three-year war in the Democratic Republic of Congo by announcing the capture of a Hutu rebel leader, who was allegedly attempting to infiltrate the country and commit a new genocide. (Independent)

Rwandan Leader Draws a Sadder Portrait of Congo Than UN (June 27, 2001)

Despite the Council's optimism about peace in the DRC, Rwandan President Paul Kagame accused DRC leadership of failing to carry out its commitments to end the long regional war. Kagame cites this failure to justify the presence of his troops in Congo. (New York Times)

UN Peacekeepers To Stay in Congo (June 15, 2001)

Acknowledging that the region remains unstable, the Security Council voted unanimously to keep peacekeepers in the DRC for another year. (Associated Press)

Rebels Reject UN Call to Demilitarize Kisangani

Rwandan-backed Congolese rebels have rejected calls from the UN force commander in Congo to demilitarize Kisangani because Rwandan Hutu militiamen continue to wage guerrilla warfare in the area. (Associated Press)

Peace in DRC Hinges On Kabila (June 2, 2001)

The UN Security Council's optimism for peace in the DRC is founded largely on the belief that DRC President Joseph Kabila will be more cooperative than his father. (Economist)

UN Optimistic Over Congo (May 30, 2001)

Back from the mission in the DRC, the delegation shared with the Security Council its cautious optimism on the withdrawal of foreign troops, and its worries on the insecurity in the region. (BBC)

Congo Rebel Warns Peace Deal on Verge of Collapse (May 30, 2001)

The Rwandan-backed rebel group, the Congolese Rally for Democracy, accuses Congolese President Joseph Kabila of arming militia groups operating behind rebel lines and undermining a cease-fire deal. (Reuters)

The Looting of Congo (May 29, 2001)

The war in the DRC serves the economic interests of some Western companies and financial institutions, criticizes this editorial of the New York Times.

DRC Tribunal Possible (May 25, 2001)

The UN is ready to assist the DRC in a move to establish an International Criminal Tribunal to punish war crimes if Kinshasa requests it. (TOMRIC

UN Delegation Finds Reasons for Hope in Congo Peace Talks (May 24, 2001)

Major foreign participants in Congo's war are now committed to withdrawing and Congolese rebels are ready to disarm, reports Ambassador Levitte of France, who leads the Security Council mission in the DRC . (New York Times)

Congo River Reopened to Traffic (May 21, 2001)

The Security Council officially reopened the Congo River - which was the scene of the most intense fighting - to commercial traffic. The river is a vital access route for food shipment to the capital. (BBC)

DRC Wants 20 000 Peacekeepers (May 21, 2001)

"The commitment of the UN is lacking in terms of personnel and resources," Kabila says. The Congolese president urges an increase in troops for the peacekeeping mission and wants to hold a regional conference to resolve the ethnic tensions and violence in the Great Lakes region. (News24)

UN Council Mission Starts Talks with Kabila (May 18, 2001)

The Security Council mission met with Kabila to discuss the peace process, and welcomed the decision to lift the ban of political parties. (Reuters)

Congo Commission Meets on Disarming Militias (May 16, 2001)

As the Security Council mission arrives in Africa, military officials and rebel groups from the different countries involved meet to discuss demobilization and the reintegration of militias into society. (Reuters)

Security Council Mission to Visit Africa's Great Lakes Region (May 14, 2001)

The Council mission wishes to ensure that foreign troops have withdrawn from the DRC and will look at plans for the disarmament and reintegration into society of rebel troops. The 12 members of the mission will also visit 8 countries in the region to hold discussions with African leaders on organizing a peace and security conference. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)

Uganda Returns to Congo Peace Talks (May 8, 2001)

After a discussion in the Ugandan Cabinet, Museveni announced that Uganda will remain a party to the Lusaka peace process - the "only viable solution to the crisis in the Democratic Republic of Congo". (Associated Press)

Congo Report Denounced (May 4, 2001)

In a Security Council meeting on the DRC report, ministers from Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi sought to rebut the accusations of illegal resource exploitation. The Council extended the mandate of the panel for three months and urged these countries to carry out their own inquiry. (BBC)

Taking Up New Positions in Congo's War (May 2, 2001)

The Congolese war is "more over public opinion than over turf", says the Washington Post. A war that Rwanda and Uganda are losing, after the UN report on the illegal exploitation of natural resources in the DRC.

Congo Joins Illegal Gem Trade Fight (April 30, 2001)

Following Sierra Leone and Angola, the DRC has signed a certification deal with diamond producers. (CNN)

Uganda Withdraws From Congo Accord (April 30, 2001)

In reaction to the UN report on natural resources naming Uganda, Museveni decided to withdraw troops from DRC and to pull out from the Lusaka Peace agreement. (Associated Press)

Sanctions Against Uganda Unlikely (April 23, 2001)

The UN is unlikely to impose sanctions on the occupying powers in the DRC since some major foreign corporate organizations support armies in the region. (East African)

Congo Cancels Israeli-Diamond Supply (April 21, 2001)

Joseph Kabila revoked the monopoly deal on diamonds his father contracted with the Israeli-based firm International Diamond Industries. The deal created an underground market and favored smuggling, reported the UN report on natural resources. (Associated Press)

Museveni Should be Held Accountable (April 19, 2001)

The Democratic Party of Uganda tells us that the UN expert panel report on the DRC is not surprising to anyone who has been following events. Their statement calls for investigation on Museveni and asks the international community to debate the report's recommendations before sanctions are imposed on the people of Uganda.

Congo: a War Without Victors (April 2001)

The Monde Diplomatique analyzes the war in the DRC in term of gains. Belligerents have lost more than their original stakes, although they plundered Congolese wealth.

Deployment to the DRC: The Rwandan Dilemma (April 17, 2001)

Stratfor discusses the complex involvement of Rwanda in the DRC and provides an interesting map showing foreign troops' positions in the Congolese territory.

Plunder of DRC Resources Denied (April 17, 2001)

The Congolese Liberation Front rebel group refutes alleged involvement in the looting of DRC's resources and accuses the UN panel on the exploitation of natural resources to be biased. The Belgian company Sabena also denied to be involved in the transportation of plundered minerals. (Agence France Presse)

UN Panel Urges Sanctions on Congo Opponents But Not on its Supporters (April 17, 2001)

The panel report calls for sanctions against Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi and the rebel groups operating in Congo. It accepted that the Congolese government used its resources to cover the war expenses of its allies, Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia, reports the Associated Press.

UN Panel on Congo Exploitation Calls for Embargo Against Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda (April 16, 2001)

The report of the UN panel on the illegal exploitation of natural resources says that the three countries systematically exploit Congo's resources like coltan, diamonds, copper, cobalt and gold and urges the Security Council to impose sanctions. It also recommends considering international prosecution of individuals, companies and government officials. (Associated Press)

DR Congo Demands Rwanda Sanctions (April 16, 2001)

Rwanda-backed rebels prevented the deployment of peacekeeping troops in Kisangani, because they consider the UN as biased in favor of Kinshasa. To deploy, the UN will have to condemn violations of the cease-fire by the government. (BBC)

Political Fever Wanes in Congo, but the Patient Is Still Sick (April 11, 2001)

Since Joseph Kabila took power, the political landscape has drastically changed. What will happen now, after the withdrawal of foreign troops, the dismissal of the Cabinet and the announced inter-Congolese dialogue? (New York Times)

Kabila Seeks Early Elections (April 5, 2001)

Joseph Kabila announces he will organize elections in the DRC as soon as all foreign troops involved in the war have withdrawn. But to be able to do so, DRC will need the help from the international community. (BBC)

UN to Send Mission to Congo (April 5, 2001)

Some Security Council members may go to the DRC and neighboring countries to ensure the peace process is going forward, reports the UK Ambassador Greenstock. (News24)

Congo's President Sacks Entire Govt (April 5, 2001)

President Joseph Kabila has just dismissed his entire government. The US and Belgium applauded the purge of his father government. But will it compromise the peace process? (Associated Press)

First Inter-Congolese Peace Talks Set for End of April (April 3, 2001)

Bemba told Agence France Presse that talks will take place among rival DRC parties who signed a ceasefire pact in Lusaka in 1999 soon.

Congolese Rebel Group Refuse to Pullback Forces (April 3, 2001)

After a meeting between Bemba and Western diplomats, the rebels announced they have not completed their withdrawal. To do so, they require the UN to pledge Rwandan rebels would not fill the gap and to guarantee the start of the inter-Congolese dialogue. (Associated Press)

UN To Deploy Peacekeepers As African Troops Start Disengagement (March 29, 2001)

After optimism, it is time for skepticism: Can 3000 peacekeepers really have an impact on the situation in a vast country like the DRC? (Guardian)

Vital Ore Funds Congo's War (March 19, 2001)

The Washington Post reveals the important position of col-tan, a mineral used to manufacture cell-phones, in the financing of the war in the DRC. The business of col-tan brings even more money to the Congolese rebels than gold and diamonds.

From Kabila to Kabila: Prospects for Peace in the Congo (March 16, 2001)

Although the international community is very optimistic about the situation in Congo, the International Crisis Group

gives us a more realistic view on the remaining confrontation between different factions on the field.

Deadline Tests Warring Armies, Rebels' Pledged Pullback in Congo (March 15, 2001)

Following Rwanda, Uganda starts to withdraw its troops from the DRC. The UN Security Council had established a disengagement deadline of March 29. (Associated Press)

US Changing Course? (March 10, 2001)

The African Perspective paints the situation in DRC in the light of the divergent western interests, counting the US oil lobby leading to the support for Angola.

Troops Withdraw from Congo (February 28, 2001)

The Rwandan withdrawal from the northern town of Pweto marks the most significant peace move since the Lusaka Agreement. (Associated Press)

Defence Defends Congo Kinshasa Mine (February 28, 2001)

The Namibian reveals that Laurent Kabila offered a diamond mine to Namibia as a reward for military support, an acquisition the Namibian Defense minister denies.

UN Council Supports Troop Withdrawal Plan for Congo (February 22, 2001)

The Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution negotiated with the different belligerent factions in the DRC.(Associated Press)

UN Opens New Congo Meetings (February 21, 2001)

Optimism surrounds new UN Congo summit planned to adopt a resolution mapping the withdrawal of foreign troops from the DRC and permitting the entry of UN observer forces . (Associated Press)

Congo Leader Offers Talks to the Rebels; Tensions Ease (February 16, 2001)

"We have stretched our hand, we have extended our hand in a gesture of peace," said Joseph Kabila, after the summit meeting intended to boost the peace process (New York Times)

New DRC Peace Talks to Open, with Three Leaders Absent (February 15, 2001)

Expectations are high in the DRC peace summit, although the Rwandan and Ugandan presidents did not attend. (Agence France Presse)

UN Now Sees Fewer Troops in Congo Patrol (February 13, 2001)

After three weeks without violation of the ceasefire, the United Nations peacekeeping department wants to reduce the number of troops to be sent in Congo, but to send them sooner.(New York Times)

Rwanda Told To Pull Out of Congo (February 8, 2001)

The Security Council urged Rwanda to withdraw troops from the DRC and warned of an upcoming report with allegations that Rwandan and Ugandan troops pocketed Congolese diamonds and gold. (Associated Press)

Rwandan Leader, in US, Urges Push for Peace in Congo (February 5, 2001)

The Rwandan president expresses his optimism about Joseph Kabila and a peace settlement. He also gives his opinion of how the Security Council should react toward Rwandan Interahamwe militias involved in the Congolese war. (New York Times)

Council Shows Willingness to Take Congo Leader at His Word (February 3, 2001)

Responding to Kabila's demand for an UN force, the Security Council suggests that it will give its go-ahead to the deployment of a full observer mission in the DRC. Kofi Annan is currently preparing a plan of how the mission could deploy over such a large area. (Associated Press)

Kabila to Call for UN Troops (February 2, 2001)

Committed to the peace process, the young Kabila met Rwanda's President Kagame to discuss the never applied Lusaka agreement allowing for UN intervention. Speaking to the Security Council, he has asked to boost the peacekeeping mission in Congo. (BBC)

Congo Withdraws Rwanda, Burundi Cases (February 2, 2001)

The day before Laurent Kabila's assassination, the DRC dropped from the ICJ its cases against neighboring countries accused of armed aggression in violation of international treaties. (Associated Press)

Kabila Makes First Peace Moves (January 31, 2001)

Joseph Kabila takes initiatives to implement the peace agreement signed in 1999. Meetings with France, the US and the UN Secretary General are on the agenda for this week. (BBC)

Reported Assassination Complicates UN Peace Efforts (January 17, 2001)

The reported assassination of Laurent Kabila threatens to complicate the already controversial deployment of MONUC, some officials say. Others suggest that his death could smooth the peace process, since Kabila was the principal obstacle to progress. (Washington Post)




Deadly Legacy: US Arms to Africa and the Congo War (January 2000)

An Arms Trade Resource Center, World Policy Institute, report by William D. Hartung and Bridget Moix. Highlights how US provisions of arms sales, military training and support of corrupt regimes have contributed to the current crisis in the DRC.

UN Wants Rwanda and Uganda Out of Congo (December 29, 2000)

The Security Council condemns recent offensives by Uganda and Rwanda in an "unusually blunt" manner, and the DRC demands that sanctions be imposed against the two countries. (Associated Press)

Rwanda Cool to UN Proposal to Deploy Troops Along Congo Border (December 16, 2000)

The warring parties in the DRC have agreed to pull back 15 km from the front lines to allow MONUC to deploy—or have they? One rebel group has set additional terms for withdrawal. Meanwhile, the Security Council agrees to send more observers. (Associated Press)

Security Council Dispute Over Congo (December 8, 2000)

Amid accusations by France that the US and UK are more interested in helping Sierra Leone than helping the DRC, Kofi Annan says that 500 observers should be sent to Congo ahead of the full MONUC mission. (Toronto National Post)

Combatants Call for Greater UN Military Presence (November 30, 2000)

The political committee overseeing the Lusaka peace process says it's time to expand MONUC. But at the same time, Laurent Kabila says that free movement for MONUC military observers would be a violation of Congolese sovereignty. (IRIN)

UN Says 16 Million People Devastated by Congo War (November 28, 2000)

The UN Security Council is told of the brutal consequences of ‘Africa's First World War', but with one of its members involved in the DRC conflict, it is political and not humanitarian issues that dominate the Council's debate. (Reuters)

Congo's Kabila Accepts Deployment of UN Peace Force (November 27, 2000)

President Kabila says that he is willing to let an expanded UN peacekeeping force deploy in the DRC. But does the UN believe there is a peace to keep? (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)

Museveni Denies Exploiting Congo's Resources Before UN Probe Team (November 11, 2000)

A team from the UN Security Council attempts to assess whether countries involved in the DRC conflict are involved in the exploitation of its natural resources. Uganda's prime minister denies any such allegations, saying that Uganda is in the DRC for "reasons of security". (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)

UN Still Faces Difficulties in Deploying Troops in DRC: Senior Official (November 9, 2000)

With the situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo still dangerous and uncertain, the deployment of peacekeepers remains a difficult proposition. Meanwhile, the African countries involved in the conflict agree to withdraw from DRC in favour of an OAU peacekeeping force—but will it happen? (Xinhua)

African Leaders Agree on Pullback of Forces in DRCongo, UN Monitoring (October 16, 2000)

Heads of the main nations involved in the conflict provide political support for the often-violated Lusaka accord. (SAPA)

UN Vote on DRCongo Seen as Last Chance for Peacekeeping Force (October 13, 2000)

The Security Council voted unanimously for a resolution to extend MONUC until December 15, in a last effort for the warring parties to make peace. Failure to relaunch peace talks will make it difficult to justify keeping the force of 245 troops, let alone increasing it as Annan had recommended earlier this year. (Agence France Presse)

In Congo, War Gets Serious (September 23-29, 2000)

After the rebel victory in Dongo and the ambiguity of Kabila, the possibility of a successful UN mission is still unsure. (Economist)

Congo's War Triumphs Over Peace Accord (September 18, 2000)

The few strands left of the Lusaka peace accord are unraveling with the complexities of alliances and rebel groups in the region being played out. The future for MONUC looks grim. (New York Times)

UN Rightly Waits on Congo Plunge (August 28, 2000)

In a radical shift from its usual strategy, the UN is now much more cautious about sending peacekeepers as its position on Congo testifies. While the list of failed PKO's can be discouraging, this new approach, thoughtful and realistic, serves to reinforce the view that "the UN now deserves a second chance." (Toronto Star)

Will the Peacekeepers finally enter the War-Torn DRC? (August 25, 2000)

Kabila's recent change of heart to let the UN troops into Congo is the direct result of the pressure exerted by the countries to the South, Angola and Namibia. Kabila's regime depends on their backing for its existence, and even a tough cookie such as the president of the DRC has to reckon with that. (

Congo's Kabila to Let UN Troops Deploy Freely (August 24, 2000)

Kabila finally relents and gives a green light to the UN peacekeepers. The letter of authorization was delivered to MONUC on Thursday, August, 24, stating that "there were no longer any restrictions on the movements of UN observers." (Reuters)

As Peace Mission Deteriorates, UN Sends an Envoy to Congo (August 18, 2000)

Amid the worsening political climate and lack of cooperation with the UN in Congo, Kofi Annan sends Abdulsalami Abubakar, a former Nigerian general, as the last hope of persuading President Kabila and his government to cooperate with the peacekeeping mission. (New York Times)

UN Diamond Investigation Panel Announced (August 18, 2000)

Safiatou Ba-N'Daw, former energy minister from the Ivory Coast and once a senior official of the World Bank, will head the Nairobi based panel. The panel will investigate diamonds and other natural resources that are illegally exploited to fuel a many-sided conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). (Rapaport TradeWire)

Congo Peace Talks Dissolve Without an Accord (August 16, 2000)

With no agreement between 10 African presidents and with the renewal of the MONUC mandate in question, there is fear of a sharp increase in fighting. President Kabila of DRC resisted calls for him to allow the unhindered deployment of UN monitors and accept facilitation of dialogue between the Congolese government and the rebels. (Associated Press)

SADC Holds Summit To Bring DRC Peace Process On Track (August 14, 2000)

African leaders and representatives of Congo rebel movements met at a summit to try and end the conflict. There is a feeling of impatience with a desire to fast track options within the framework of the Lusaka accord. President Mugabe of Zimbabwe feels that "Elders like ourselves should not wait for the United Nations to whip us before we move. We have to do it on our own." (Panafrican News)

UN May Abort Peacekeeping Operations in the Congo (August 3, 2000)

The planned UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MOUNC) "appears to be blocked on just about every front." For the first time, the UN Secretary General is on the verge of recommending the UN Security Council to abandon the planned mission. (Inter Press Service/One World)

UN Halts Deployment in Congo After Kabila Says Troops Unnecessary (July 24, 2000)

Without assent and cooperation from the President of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the UN peacekeepers can only watch from the sidelines.(Associated Press)

Democratic Republic of Congo's Kabila Slams UN "Laziness" Over Ceasefire Violations (July 22,2000)

With the pro-rebel Ugandans and Rwandans still fighting in the DR Congo, President Kabila expressed his frustration with the incompetence of the UN mission in DRC (MONUC) fulfilling its mandate. ( Agence France Presse)

Envoys Say Africa Won't Tolerate Another Genocide (July 13, 2000)

A Washington Times round-table discussion concerning the causes and solutions to the war in Congo. High officials from six African countries – Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Congo and Burundi – express their opinions.

Briefing By US Envoy to the UN Richard Holbrooke on Africa (June 30, 2000)

At a briefing with African journalists, the US Ambassador to the UN explained that Africa is a top priority for the US government. He denied the US's alleged "double" standard towards Africa, but admitted that the US is "partly to blame" for the difficulties in UN peacekeeping. (UN Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN)/ Africa News )

OAU Said to be Against New Mediator for Congo (June 26, 2000)

Although the current peace mediator, former Botswana President Masire, is disliked by the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) wants to give Masire a chance to hammer out an inter-Congolese peace with the warring parties. (CNN/Reuters)

UN Security Council Deplores Congo's Lack of Cooperation on Ending War (June 22, 2000)

The UN Security Council condemns the Democratic Republic of Congo for refusing to cooperate with the peace mediator, former Botswana President Masire. This lack of cooperation is interfering with the "inter-Congolese" peace process. (Associated Press)

Democratic Republic of Congo Belligerents in New York for Crucial Talks at UN (June 15, 2000)

The UN Security Council is hosting a meeting inviting representatives from all warring parties involved in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The outcome will determine direction of future UN involvement in the African civil war. (Agence France Presse)

Annan: Congo and Troops Not Ready (June 14, 2000)

Disappointed by the resumed fighting in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UN Secretary General suggested to the Security Council to consider a Chapter 7 enforcement if all other diplomatic efforts and threats of sanctions fail. (United Press International)

Security Council Requests Establishment of Expert Panel To Investigate Illegal Exploitation Of Resources In Democratic Republic Of Congo (June 2, 2000)

The UN Security Council requested the establishment of an expert panel to investigate the link between conflicts and exploitation of the natural resources, such as diamonds, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (Press Release SC/6871 )

Diamond Miners in Congo Seek Stock Listing in London (May 30, 2000)

As profits from illicit diamond trade support rebel fighting in Africa, Oryx Diamonds is seeking to be listed on the Stock Exchange. Oryx claims that their diamonds, mined in the Democratic Republic of Congo, are not "conflict diamonds," and the profit will support the DRC to fight off rebels. ( Post Express )

Congo's Neighbors Seek to Exit Conflict (May 25, 2000)

The cease-fire is being maintained and warring countries are showing a willingness to withdraw. In the DRC, the stage is set for the UN peacekeepers to step in. The failures in other parts of Africa however, is discouraging UN troop contributors to act in this prime opportunity. (Washington Post)

No Military Solution to the Conflict in Congo (May 17, 2000)

Report on the mission by seven Security Council members to the Democratic Republic of Congo. Amb. Holbrooke of the US emphasized that the Lusaka Peace Agreement is the only solution to the regional crisis. He also stressed that the recent crisis in Sierra Leone does not affect the peacekeeping mission in Congo. (UN Press Release (SC/6862))

Rwanda Says it is Willing to Begin Withdrawal From Congo (May 8, 2000)

The UN Security Council mission to Congo has proven successful in obtaining a pledge from Rwanda to withdraw troops from Congo and allow UN peacekepers some degree of access to areas of Congo under Rwanda's control. (New York Times)

UN Envoy to Congo Outlines Plan for Mission (April 26, 2000)

With the current cease-fire holding now for more than a week, the UN is expressing optimism that the situation in Congo may soon be stable enough to allow for the deployment of peacekeepers. (New York Times)

Another DR Congo Cease-Fire Fails (April 15, 2000)

Amid yet another failed cease-fire in the DRC, which rebel groups have accused the government of breaking, the UN is working out sanctions to impose upon violators. (The Monitor - Kampala)

UN Security Council Members to Travel to DR Congo (April 13, 2000)

Before sending a UN force of 5500 to the region, the Security Council will send half its members to visit the Democratic Republic of Congo in May to discuss 'concrete ways' to enforce the Lusaka peace accord. (Daily Mail & Guardian)

Diamond Economy Under Threat (April 10, 2000)

In its campaign against the diamond industry, Global Witness, a UK-based NGO, calls for consumer action against the industry as a result of the on-going civil wars in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone which are financed from diamond sales.(Mmegi/The Reporter , Gaborone)

Foes in Congo Appeal for U.N. Peacekeepers (April 10, 2000)

After another ceasefire was signed on Saturday, which all sides have this time promised to honor, the parties involved in the conflict have appealed to the UN for a deployment of peacekeepers. (New York Times)

Africa's Gems: Warfare's Best Friend (April 6, 2000)

An in depth report from the New York Times clearly tracing the relationship between ongoing conflicts in Africa and the current prosperity of the diamond industry.

Congo Rebels Accuse Kabila's Army (April 3, 2000)

In further violation of the peace accord signed last August, fighting resumed as Congolese rebels claimed to have killed more than twenty government troops in renewed attacks by the advancing forces of President Laurent Kabila. (Associated Press)

DR Congo Ceasefire Pledges under Scrutiny (March 9, 2000)

The rebels control about half of the country, Kabila the other, and the commitment of both sides to stop fighting which is needed for the UN troops to enter is in question. (BBC News)

Annan Cautious on Deployment of Peacekeepers to Congo (March 8, 2000)

Although the UN has already committed a theoretical 5,500 personnel to the Congo, the Secretary General and others remain hesitant as the permanency of the cease-fire remains in doubt. (Panafrican News Agency )

Kabila Still to Give the UN Green Light (March 6, 2000)

The UN Congo mission has been approved by the UN but not by the warring factions, each of which are trying to attach conditions, thus putting the whole mission in jeopardy. (The Namibian, Windhoek)

UN Council Approves Congo Peace Mission (February 25, 2000)

The Security Council unanimously agreed to set up a UN force for the Congo composed of 500 monitors, 1000 soldiers and 4000 support staff. The Council asked Secretary-General Kofi Annan to decide when conditions in the Congo are acceptable for deployment. (New York Times)

Security Council Votes to Expand UN Mission (February 24, 2000)

The Security Council has decided to increase the UN mission in D.R.Congo (MONUC) to up to 5,537 military personnel who are to protect the UN observers, the Joint Military Commission and civilians. (UN Newservice)

Canada Welcomes Congo Effort (February 24, 2000)

A speech by an ambassador (Robert Fowler) as an example of how national views and concerns are expressed in the UN Security Council. (Canadian Mission to the UN)

Brazzaville Asks for Aid for DR Congo Refugees (February 17, 2000)

With pirate raids by the rebels on the rivers, some areas have become cut off from international trade, making thousands of refugees pour into neighbouring Congo Republic - it has received so many it feels overwhelmed without outside aid. (Agence France-Presse)

Pentagon Advises UN on Congo (February 17, 2000)

While the US administration supports the proposed new force, it is also skeptical because of bad experiences in the past. (Washington Times)

Africans Want UN to Play a Stronger Role in Congo (February 13, 2000)

African leaders have asked the UN to take on the difficult task of dearming and peace making in the Congo. (New York Times)

US Proposes 5,500 UN Troops for Congo Mission (February 9, 2000)

The US has introduced a Security Council resolution calling for a 5,500-strong UN peacekeeping force in the DRC. However, both the US and Europe are unlikely to commit any of their own troops. (New York Times)

Pentagon Advises UN on Congo (February 9, 2000)

Is the Pentagon's advisory role in the UN mission in Congo a welcome development or does it spell the beginning of new partnerships between the UN and the military-industrial complex? (Washington Times)

New York Times Series: Chaos in the Congo (February 6, 2000)

A primer on what many are calling Africa's 'First World War'.

Women Invited to Forum on How to End Congo War (February 2, 2000)

US State Department consults with women involved in the Congo conflict.

Congo: a Comparative Time Line

A timeline of the history of the Congo that puts current events and conflicts into a wider context. (Megastories)

African Wars Fueled by Russian Arms and US Training (January 26, 2000)

Drawing on recent reports from the World Policy Institute, Jane's Defence Weekly and the UN annual Arms Register for 1999, Thalif Deen of InterPress Service discusses the arms trade fueling African conflicts.

UN Considers Authorising Peacekeepers For Congo (January 26, 2000)

The Panafrican News Agency reports that the Security Council is considering expanding the UN Mission in the Congo.

Lack Of UN Peacekeepers in DRC Worries African Leaders (January 25, 2000)

The Panafrican News Agency tells how major African leaders accuse the UN of neglecting the Congo and monitoring only peace agreements outside Africa. As they point out, it is foolish to expect the cease-fire to hold without UN peacekeepers keeping the armies separated.

7 African Heads of State Address Security Council (January 24, 2000)

UN Press Release detailing discussions during the special Security Council meeting on the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Annan Urges African Leaders to Strengthen 'Fragile' Peace in the DRC (January 24, 2000)

UN Press Release providing the Secretary's statement during the Council's meeting on the Congo.

UN Council Tries to Get Congo Peace Deal on Track (January 24, 2000)

Reuters article on the special Security Council session on the Congo includes a list of African heads of states and other officials addressing the Council.

UN Seeks To Revive Congo Cease-Fire (January 24, 2000)

US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright is chairwoman of the first day of a special Security Council session on the DRC. Current Council President US Ambassador Holbrooke has initiated a focus on Africa throughout January 2000.

Angolan President in New York to Attend Session on DRC (January 24, 2000)

Heads of state from southern African countries and the Great Lakes region have come to New York to participate in a Council session aimed at giving momentum to the peace process in Congo following the cease-fire agreement signed in July 1999 in Lusaka, Zambia.



Africans Pushing for UN Force in Congo, but US Says Not Now (December 16, 1999)

African Ambassadors on the Security Council urge immediate action in the Congo where all parties have been accused of violating the cease-fire agreement.

Security Council Warned on Deteriorating Situation in DRC (December 16, 1999)

Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping Operations, Bernard Miyet, briefs the Security Council on the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (UN Newswire)

Belligerents Urged To End Conflict (December 14, 1999)

An InterPress Service article about Ambassador Holbrooke's meetings with rebel leaders in the Democratic Republic of Congo reports that "there seems little evidence of a new entente between the protagonists."

Holbrooke to Unveil Series of Initiatives for Dealing With Africa (December 6, 1999)

During an extended trip around Africa, Holbrooke outlines the Clinton Administration's approach towards Angola and the Congo. (New York Times)

Mandate, Composition Approved for UN Mission in DRC (December 1, 1999)

Unanimous Security Council vote also asks Secretary General Annan to arrange for UN military advisors under the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC).

President Chiluba Echoed The Concerns of Many (September 23, 1999)

A Times of Zambia Opinion about UN's dealing with African problems quoating President Chiluba's address to the UN Security Council. "The African countries are not seeking any preferential treatment but merely demanding a fair hearing and the same treatment accorded other members of the UN."

Last Hope For Congo (September 7, 1999)

A pessimistic opinion piece published in the Washington Post urges the West to assist African leaders who have worked to negotiate the Congo peace pact.

Celebrations, Skepticism Greet Congo Truce (September 1, 1999)

Early reactions are profiled in this article. Calls for Kabila to resign and fundamental splits between groups remain.

Annan Welcomes Signing of DRC Ceasefire by Last Rebel Group (September 1, 1999)

Africa News article and link to Annan's statement about the signing of the ceasefire agreement for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that took place in Lusaka, Zambia.

Glimer Of Hope For Congo (August 31, 1999)

Optomism expressed at the signing of the cease-fire agreement. (Times of Zambia, Lusaka)

Battle Rages in Congo While Leaders Talk Peace (August 16, 1999)

A Nando Media article on the fight between Rwandan and Ugandan troops and the leaders' efforts to end the confrontation that imperils their campaign to oust Congolese President Laurent Kabila.

Security Council Approves Deployment of UN Personnel in DR Congo (August 6, 1999)

Agence France-Presse about a Security Council resolution authorizing the deployment of UN military liaison personnel to help implement an inter-African peace accord.

Rebel Leader Accuses Congo of Bomb Attacks (August 5, 1999)

Associated Press article on a bomb dropped by the DRC government onto two rebel-held towns only days after the rebel party agreed to sign the recent peace accord. The death toll from this bomb is the largest since the beginning of the war.

Brutal Bands of Rwandans Bar Way to Peace in Congo (August 4, 1999)

New York Times article on the relationship of rebels from Rwanda and the government of the DRC, noting that the UN will go into the region to ensure the enforcement of the peace accord, but it is unlikely that they will participate in the dangerous task of disarming the rebels.

Rebel Signs Congo Accord (August 2, 1999)

Associated Press article on the signing of the peace accord in the DRC by Jean-Pierre Bemba, the leader of the Movement for the Liberation of Congo who is interested in establishing a true democratic government in the war-torn country.

Congo Peace Accord Ailing as Rivals Jockey for Position (August 1, 1999)

New York Times article with analysis of the motives of rebel forces in the DRC for refusing to sign on to the recent peace accord.

In Congo's War, Bullets Keep Flying (July 24, 1999)

Washington Post article on the recent peace accord, with analysis of the speculation that the Rwandan government is supporting the rebel's decision not to sign on.

War in Congo Rattles On Despite Accord (July 19, 1999)

New York Times article on the continuing rebel conflict in the DRC in spite of the recent peace accord, including a description of the peacekeeping forces that may be sent in by the UN.

Annan Recommends Immediate Deployment of 90 Officers to Congo (July 17, 1999)

Secretary General Kofi Annan recommended to deploy 90 liaison officers in Congo to respond to the cease-fire agreement reached on July 10 between the governments involved in the conflict. However, Annan admitted that any UN deployment in Congo would be "beset by risks," especially because the rebels did not sign the agreement. (Associated Press)

Pieces of Peace in Africa (July 11, 1999)

Washington Post article on recent peace agreements in Africa and the importance of multilateral peacekeeping institutions in the region while nations rebuild legitimate governments and face residual internal conflict.

Congo Cease-Fire Signed, Not by Rebels (July 11, 1999)

Washington Post article on a cease-fire signed by six African nations, formally ending an 11-month war in the DRC, but rebel leaders from Uganda and Rwanda who are recognized by national armies, did not sign.

Congo Accord Outline (July 9, 1999)

Africa News highlighting a draft of the ceasefire document aimed at ending the conflict in the DRC.

Annan Says UN Ready to Send Observers to Congo (July 8, 1999)

Secretary General Kofi Annan announced that the UN plans on sending perhaps as many as 500 observers to the Democratic Republic of Congo as soon as a peace agreement has been signed. (Mumbai Indian Express)

Congo Peacekeeping Operation Seen as Pricey and Risky (July 8, 1999)

With a cease-fire agreement reached in the Democratic Republic of Congo, talks about a UN peacekeeping mission there are underway. However, officials warn that the operation could turn out to be "enormous, dangerous and very, very expensive." (Nando Media / Associated Press)

Look Away From Kosovo to See the Crisis in Central Africa (June 22, 1999)

"Turning away from Kosovo to take a glance at Central Africa is long overdue," writes Darioush Bayandor, UN humanitarian coordinator for the Congo, in this opinion piece from the International Herald Tribune.

UN Official Urges World To Remember Congo's Crisis (May 15, 1999)

Panafrican News article on the extraordinarily bad humanitarian situation in Congo: "The displaced population" (350,000 persons during the last crisis in December) "has not received any humanitarian aid."

UN Expert Accuses Congo Rebels of Harsh Rights Abuses (March 30, 1999)

A UN report on human rights abuses in Congo.

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