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General Articles on the Occupation and Rule in Iraq

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What Can the US Do in Iraq? (December 22, 2004)

In a study of US options in Iraq, the International Crisis Group finds that the US needs to disengage from Iraq politically as well as militarily in order to build a sovereign, unified and independent state. In addition to this, the new Iraqi state must distance itself from US policies if it wants to withstand the opposition of its own citizens. Instead of sticking to a timetable that was drawn up at the start of the occupation, Washington ought to take the changed circumstances in account and devise a strategy that goes beyond simply applauding victories such as the "transfer of sovereignty."

Iraq's National Guard No People's Army (December 16, 2004)

Although the Bush Administration perceives the Iraqi National Guard as part of its exit strategy, Iraqis view the US-trained Guard as an extension of the occupation. The 40,000-strong force, "half-way between a police and an army," strongly resembles the US occupying forces, rendering it another target for the resistance. (Reuters)

A New Course in Iraq (December 10, 2004)

This article proposes five essential steps the US needs to take if it wants to restore security in Iraq and withdraw its forces. In order to grant the new Iraqi government legitimacy and ensure ordinary Iraqis' safety, the US must take serious measures to reduce the cost of war to the people it has supposedly liberated. (Foreign Policy in Focus)

US Retreats from Theory of Democratic Transformation in the Middle East (December 8, 2004)

This article argues that neoconservatives are abandoning their theory of democratic transformation in the Middle East as they struggle to stabilize Iraq. Convinced of the need to "help transform a troubled part of the world," the Bush administration intended to make Iraq a neoliberal market democracy that would set an example for the region. However, as the continued occupation of Iraq shows, the intervention has done nothing to foster democracy in the Middle East. (Power and Interest News Report)

American Options in Iraq (November 8, 2004)

Former State Department's policy expert William R. Polk outlines three possible options for the US in Iraq. He devises several strategies that deal with the situation and concludes that the best alternative is for President George Bush to show the courage of General Charles de Gaulle in Algeria- admit that the insurgency has "won" and call for a "peace of the braves." (Informed Comment)

Iraq's New Patent Law: A Declaration of War Against Farmers (November 2004)

This article exposes Washington's attempts to impose neoliberal reforms on Iraq's economy. Under a new law, introduced by former Coalition Provisional Authority Chief Paul Bremer, large transnational corporations will import the seeds Iraqi farmers plant and farmers will not be allowed to save and replant seeds. The US argues the law is necessary to ensure good quality seeds in Iraq and facilitate its accession to the WTO, but critics fear that by imposing these regulations, "Iraq will remain under occupation indefinitely." (Foreign Policy in Focus)

Iraq in the DNA of Imperialism (October 28, 2004)

US claims of bringing democracy to Iraq will never go hand in hand with US desire to take over the region and control vast energy resources in the Middle East. Four decades of British rule in Iraq illustrate that "no empire has ever been able to dominate alien territories by granting their populations democracy." Colonizers cannot afford democracy in the countries they occupy.
(Iraq News Net)

Negligent US Forces to Blame for Massacre of Recruits, Says Allawi (October 27, 2004)

In a sign of discord between the US and Iraqi government, Iraq's Prime Minister Ayad Allawi responded to the recent massacre of 49 Iraqi soldiers by accusing US soldiers of negligence. The statement came after Allawi said the security situation has worsened in Iraq, contrary to US claims, and after Iraq's Foreign Minister Hoshiyar Zebari called the US attacks on Fallujah "mismanaged." (Independent)

From Bad to Worse In Iraq (October 27, 2004)

The New York Timesnotes that the US administration has managed to arm dangerous terrorists and create a branch of Al Qaeda in Iraq. Ironically, although the occupiers legitimized the war on Iraq on the basis of inexistent weapons of mass destruction, they lost existing weapons which UN inspectors had monitored for years.

The US Invasion of Iraq: The Military Side of Globalization? (October 26, 2004)

This article argues that the US did not invade Iraq solely for oil interests. Rather, Washington's game plan consisted of spreading neoliberal economic policies and imposing radical changes on the previously state-controlled economy. The reforms, which closely resemble the IMF's structural adjustment programs, impose a "free-market utopia" and will benefit US-based corporations. (Foreign Policy in Focus)

Q&A: Private Military Contractors and the Law (October 21, 2004)

Though private military contractors (PMCs) play an increasing role in military operations, their legal status remains unclear. This question and answer page from Human Rights Watchoffers a breakdown of the legal implications for PMCs operating in Iraq. Under the 1949 Geneva Conventions, PMCs are generally protected as civilians. This designation is complicated, however, when contractors participate directly in military operations.

US Effort Aims to Improve Opinions About Iraq Conflict (September 30, 2004)

In an attempt to do away with negative perceptions of the Iraq war, the Pentagon is restricting distribution of reports showing increasing violence in Iraq and is sending Iraqi Americans to US military bases to provide "a first-hand account" of "good news" about events in Iraq. The Pentagon says it is launching this unusual public-relations initiative because Iraqi Americans "feel strongly that the benefits of the coalition efforts have not been fully reported." (Washington Post)

The New US Strategy After the Battle of Najaf (September 28, 2004)

In the wake of the Najaf standoff, the US has devised a new strategy of negotiating with clerics, offering extensive reconstruction aid in exchange for ending the insurgency. With help of the new plan, the US hopes to crush the insurgency in cities where guerillas dominate and legitimize the upcoming elections by ensuring votes from these areas. (Iraq News Net)

Bush, in Shift, Taps Into Emergency Iraq Funds (September 21, 2004)

After US President George Bush insisted he had "ample resources" to fund the war in Iraq, the Pentagon is now nevertheless tapping its 25 billion emergency fund to prepare for a major troop rotation and intense fighting this fall. The news comes after Bush announced plans to divert $ 3.5 billion from Iraqi water, power and other reconstruction projects to improve security. (Reuters)

Ignited Iraq (September 15, 2004)

Author and filmmaker Peter Davis's account of a trip to Iraq provides an interesting mix of first-hand experience and historical overview. Several anecdotes illustrate Iraqis' anger at the US occupying forces and emphasize the importance of Islam in Iraqi society. Statements by a moderate imam who strongly opposes a separation of Mosque and State, are important indicators of the make-up of a future Iraqi government. (Nation)

A Failed "Transition": The Mounting Costs of the Iraq War (September 2004)

The Institute for Policy Studies and Foreign Policy in Focusprovide a detailed account of the mounting costs of the US-led war on Iraq. The figures show a large increase in spending since the "handover of power" to the Iraqi interim government in June 2003 and outline the costs to the US, Iraq and the world.

Iraq's Sistani Returns, Plans to End Najaf Crisis (August 25, 2004)

Shiite Cleric Grand Ayatollah al-Sistani returned to Iraq following heart surgery in the UK, hoping to end the fighting in the holy city of Najaf. Reports indicate that Sistani will call for an immediate ceasefire between US forces and followers of Cleric Moqtada al-Sadr. Sistani will also demand an immediate withdrawal of US forces from the city, turning control over to Iraqi police. (Reuters)

Iraqi National Guard Members Reluctant to Fight Mahdi Army (August 22, 2004)

The deployment of Iraq's National Guard troops to the holy city of Najaf prompted the largest amount of desertions since April 2004, when troops quit in protest over the siege of Fallujah. An Iraqi Commander in Najaf claims that his troops may fight insurgents under the authority of the Interim Government, but in reality, "it is not Iraqis who are in command." (Knight Ridder Newspapers)

Sistani's Trip to the UK, Fayyad Likely Successor (August 9, 2004)

Ash-Sharq al-Awsat reveals that Grand Ayatollah Sistani's planned trip to the UK was in the works since mid-July 2004. The reports suggest that US forces planned a siege on Najaf well before the August 2004 uprising, and that the US feared that al-Sadr may take Sistani hostage or seek refuge in the Grand Ayatollah's home. (Informed Comment)

The Failed Occupation (August 8, 2004)

Will Iraq emerge as the "open, democratic society," Washington and London envisioned? Jonathan Freedland of the Guardianargues that the censure of Arab television network al-Jazeera, charges of murder and corruption against White House favorites Ahmed and Salem Chalabi, and the continued presence of over 160,000 foreign troops operating "on their own freewill," proves otherwise.

So Much for Democracy: Iraqis Plan for Introduction of Martial Law (July 8, 2004)

Iraqi officials claim that instituting martial law is a necessary step in stemming the attacks by insurgents throughout the country. The legislation grants Iraqi authorities permission to impose curfews, ban demonstrations, restrict movement of all Iraqis, phone-tap, open mail and freeze bank accounts. Will these new measures quell the violence? (Independent)

US Will Override Baghdad in War on Terrorism (July 1, 2004)

US commanders in Iraq announced that "multinational" forces will continue launching attacks against "high-profile targets," even if Iraq's Interim Government objects to the actions. As US-led forces continue to freely operate throughout Iraq, one wonders how much "sovereignty" Iraq's new government can exercise. (Guardian)

Insiders Shape Postwar Iraq (June 20, 2004)

This Chicago Tribuneinvestigation reveals that the "planners" of Iraq's occupation favored the appointment of numerous individuals with "strong GOP or conservative pedigrees" to high-ranking posts within the CPA. Career diplomats and foreign policy experts with backgrounds in Middle East issues or nation-building were passed over because they did not share the Defense Department's vision "that a capitalist democracy could be quickly installed in the country."

Blair Jumps the Gun on Iraqi Veto (May 26, 2004)

A rift between the White House and Downing Street emerged on the status of forces in Iraq after June 30, 2004 as Prime Minister Tony Blair announced that the Iraqi Interim Government could veto any US-led military operations. However, Washington insists that the "multinational force" will continue conducting military operations in the country with or without consent from the new government. (Guardian)

The Decent Thing (May 18, 2004)

This Newsweekarticle report highlights widening rifts between US and British commanders "doctrines" in handling "post-conflict operations" in Iraq. Senior British officers in Iraq are "seething" at the US military's heavy-handed and overwhelming use of force throughout Iraq.

Powell Says Troops Would Leave Iraq if New Leaders Asked (May 15, 2004)

French, Russian and Italian officials assert that an "effective transfer of power" to an Iraqi transitional government includes ceding control of Iraqi security forces and granting Iraq the authority to halt military action by US-led forces. US Secretary of State Colin Powell rejected that notion, saying that Iraqi and International forces will remain under US command. (Washington Post)

Dissension Grows In Senior Ranks on War Strategy (May 9, 2004)

Senior US military officers contend that the Bush administration's Iraq policy fails to "understand the war [the US is] in." The officers believe that the US will lose the war of "achieving its goal of establishing a free and democratic Iraq," should the Iraq strategy fail to reflect the needs of the Iraqi people. (Washington Post)

Security Companies: Shadow Soldiers in Iraq (April 19, 2004)

This article examines the Pentagon's increasing reliance on private security firms in Iraq performing crucial jobs once entrusted to the military. Security firms, armed with state-of-the-art weaponry, provide security for members of the Coalition Provisional Authority including Paul Bremer, escort supply convoys through hostile territory, and defend key locations including the "Green Zone" in downtown Baghdad. (New York Times)

Britain and US 'Divided on Iraq Policy' (April 14, 2004)

Michael Rubin, a former adviser to the CPA, suggests that deep divisions between the US and the UK concerning Iraq's governance led to the resignation of British envoy Sir Jeremy Greenstock. Officials believe that Greenstock became increasingly frustrated at the way Paul Bremer was running the CPA, seeing Bremer as "too ideological." (Telegraph)

US Tactics Condemned by British Officers (April 11, 2004)

Senior British commanders contend that the US military is employing aggressive methods to quell violence in Iraq, calling the tactics "heavy-handed and disproportionate." The commanders believe that the US military policy in Iraq stems from a lack of concern with the loss of Iraqi lives, adding that US soldiers view Iraqis as "sub-humans." (Telegraph)

Generals in Iraq Consider Options for More Troops (April 6, 2004)

Uprisings throughout Iraq prompted US Senior Commander General John Abizaid to request a contingency plan increasing the number of US troops in Iraq. As the June 30, 2004 "transfer of sovereignty" date approaches, can the US-led coalition stabilize security in the country? (New York Times)

Iraq on the Brink of Anarchy (April 6, 2004)

Robert Fisk reports that the upsurge in attacks on occupation forces in Iraq has been brewing for many months. A Special Forces officer in Iraq claims that conditions in Iraq will only get worse, adding that Iraqi and coalition leaders will not admit to it because "they don't know or because they don't want you to know." (Independent)

Iraq: One Year After (March 2004)

This report by the Council for Foreign Relations(CFR) addresses the issues confronting the US-led occupation of Iraq. CFR stresses the importance of US acceptance for UN leadership in "developing…the process for creating a transitional authority, procedures for elections, and other institutions related to the transition."

Bremer Closes Hardline Newspaper and Iraqis Ask: Is This Democracy US-Style? (March 30, 2004)

US Civilian Administrator Paul Bremer ordered a sixty-day closure of Al-Hawza al-Natiqa, a weekly newspaper with a circulation of only 10,000 people. Bremer stated the newspaper reporting encourages attacks against coalition forces and the Coalition Provisional Authority. Is the US infringing on Iraqi press rights to "Freedom of Speech?" (Independent)

Occupiers Spend Millions on Private Army of Security Men (March 28, 2004)

Thousands of "mercenaries-for-hire," including individuals trained in Chile under the Pinochet dictatorship, are appearing throughout Iraq to provide security services for the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and private firms operating in the country. Is "private-policing" the CPA's answer to stabilize security in Iraq? (Independent)

US Officials Fashion Legal Basis to Keep Force in Iraq (March 26, 2004)

US officials contend that if negotiations for a "status-of-forces" agreement with Iraq's transitional government fail, UN Security Council Resolution 1511 will provide the legal justification required for US-led coalition forces to maintain control of Iraq until December, 2005. (New York Times)

Iraq Under the US Thumb (March 24, 2004)

Naomi Klein contends that continued instability ironically benefits the US agenda in Iraq. Violence against Iraqi civilians, foreign aid workers and journalists, as well as occupation forces, allows Washington to maintain troops in Iraq, install a "sovereign Iraqi government" completely favorable to them and allow unfettered access to Iraqi oil resources.

US Will Retain Power in Sovereign Iraq (March 21, 2004)

Iraqi and US officials maintain that ending the US-led occupation on June 30, 2004 will simply be a symbolic gesture. The US, with its world's largest embassy in Baghdad, will hold most power, while the Iraqi government's functions will be limited to drafting a budget for 2005 and preparing for general elections. (Associated Press)

General Sacked by Bush Says He Wanted Early Elections (March 18, 2004)

Former civilian administrator of Iraq US General Jay Garner claims that his opposition to White House demands not to hold free elections and to promote a program of economic privatization, led to his dismissal after one month. (Guardian)

The Right Exit (March 15, 2004)

What are the responsibilities of a "de-occupying power?" Human Rights Watch Director Kenneth Roth outlines the duties of the occupational authority after June 30, 2004 transfer of power to a transitional government, including reinforcement of national security and the establishment of a stable and legitimate political structure. (New Statesman)

Unmet Social Needs a Powder Keg for Instability (March 13, 2004)

Both Iraqi and international leaders warn that continued delays in reconstruction of social infrastructure, including the health care and education systems, increases the possibility of civil unrest in Iraq. The leaders contend that the stability of future Iraqi governments hedges on the ability in meeting basic social needs. (Inter Press Service)

US Wants Military Control in Iraq, Even After Sovereignty Handed Over (March 13, 2004)

Officials in Washington worry that a sovereign Iraqi government may restrain activities of US forces in the country, limiting the US command over Iraq's military and police, as well as restricting US authority over killing of insurgents and interrogation of Iraqi prisoners. Negotiation of a treaty governing the status of foreign troops will resume after June 30, 2004. (Associated Press)

Democracy How? (March 1, 2004)

The deteriorating security situation in Iraq leads to renewed calls by Iraqis throughout the country to end the US-led occupation. They contend that stabilization of the country will occur only if the UN assumes control over the transitional process, eliminating any US influence in determining Iraq's future. (American Prospect)

Sunnis Need Breathing Space Before Any Iraq Polls (February 13, 2004)

In a post-war political spectrum dominated by the Shiites and Kurds, Iraq's Sunni population is afraid of being "swept away by the Shi'ites." This article argues that the Sunni, traditionally associated with the Saddam Hussein regime, do not have established political leaders and will lack proper representation in the new Iraq. (Reuters)

Controlling Iraq's Skies: The Secret Sell-Off of Iraq's Air Industry (February 9, 2004)

An Open Society Institutereport claims that the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq sold 75 percent of Iraq's state airline to an Iraqi family, despite proclaiming that the sale of Iraq's state assets would end. It argues that the US is in danger of creating a class of elites in Iraq, similar to that of post-communist Russia.

"Would It Hurt Them to Try?" (February 9, 2004)

This article, written by a 16-year-old Iraqi girl, discusses the impacts of US occupation on Iraq's people and way of life. Regarding the US forces, she says Iraq's culture "has been around for too long to be stomped on by people who have no appreciation of from where they, themselves, have relatively recently migrated." (YellowTimes)

Division of Iraq Would Likely Breed Regional Instability (January 28, 2004)

This Power and Interest News Reportarticle examines likely scenarios resulting from a division of Iraq into three separate states. The article argues that an autonomous Kurdish state would spark conflict with Turkey and Syria, while Iran would gain increased control and influence over the Shiite population thereby strengthening its bargaining position in the Middle East.

Iraq: Critical Days Ahead (January 26, 2004)

The Middle East Economic Survey argues that current US plans to hold caucuses selecting an Iraqi transitional government, only serves to marginalize dissenting groups thereby planting "the seeds of a civil war." Instead, the US should take the initiative "to bring all groups together "to reach a new social contract to replace the old one before the elections are held."

Of Course the White House Fears Free Elections in Iraq (January 24, 2004)

Washington opposes elections in Iraq fearing that an elected and representative government will choose to expel the US occupiers. Explaining the US argument that elections are not feasible, the Guardian argues only an appointed government "can be trusted to accept US troops and corporations."

Civil War Possible in Iraq, CIA Says (January 22, 2004)

The White House will almost certainly oppose any proposed postponement of a power transfer in Iraq. It wants the occupation over and hopes to bring many US troops home by this summer, to bolster Bush's re-election chances. Knight Ridder News Service reports that the US is prepared to go ahead with the power transfer "whatever the fallout" may be.

Hussein Warned Iraqis to Beware Outside Fighters (January 13, 2004)

Documents found on Saddam Hussein confirm that the US accusations of collaboration between Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein were unfounded. The New York Times argues that the CIA believes "Mr. bin Laden saw Mr. Hussein as one of the corrupt secular Arab leaders who should be toppled."

In Iraq, Timing is Everything (January 13, 2004)

The Iraqi Ministry of Planning proposed a process of voter registration that allows for elections as early as September 2004, ensuring representation of all Iraqis. But the CPA considers this process as "too time-consuming" and insists on completing elections before May. With US presidential elections due in November and mounting pressure on the US for meaningful results, Foreign Policy in Focus questions the true US commitment to Iraqi democracy.

US Coalition Forces Above the Law, According to the CPA (January 5, 2004)

How can the Coalition get away with killing civilians, religious leaders, protesters and journalists, wonders the Electronic Iraq? CPA Order Number 17 deals with the status of the Coalition personnel: "They shall be immune from local criminal, civil, and administrative jurisdiction and from any form of arrest or detention."


Dangers of a Drawn-out War (April 6, 2003)

This prescient article highlights similarities between the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 and the German invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941. Both countries possessed precious raw materials and neither had the military power to match that of their imperialistic aggressors. Like today's Iraq, Yugoslavia was ethnically divided but a growing partisan resistance developed following the short military campaign. After a long and bitter guerilla war, the resistance forced a German withdrawal. A similar scenario may unfold for the US in Iraq. (Forward)

Strategic Trade-offs in Iraq (December 15, 2003)

Since the US launched its new hard-line Operation Iron Hammer attacks on Washington's allies have increased in Iraq. These more aggressive policies alienate many Iraqis. (Power and Interest News Report)

A Sunday in Samarra (December 7, 2003)

Official US military sources and the people of Samara deeply disagree about what happened in the "Battle of Samarra." Reporters say that the information given by the US military doesn't add up. (Inter Press Service)

Powell Reports Progress with NATO on Iraq (December 5, 2003)

US Secretary of State Colin Powell says "key American allies" reacted favorably to his appeal to NATO to take a direct role in "Iraq's reconstruction." Washington expects that international opposition will soften when the US hands over sovereignty to a transitional Iraqi government. (Los Angeles Times)

Governing Council in "a Serious Crisis" (December 4, 2003)

The US-appointed Iraqi Governing Council loses support from the Iraqi people. The Iraqis blame the Council for the power outages, lack of security and other problems in the country. (USA Today)

Recent Visitors Question US Tactics (December 3, 2003)

Middle East experts say that US military tactics fighting resistance to the occupation may create new enemies among the Iraqis. Serious political mistakes have undermined the prospects for eventual US success. (Inter Press Service)

Parallels between US Occupation of Iraq and US Involvement in Vietnam (November 28, 2003)

Iraqi resistance fighters might not defeat the US military, but the US military cannot conquer the Iraqi resistance fighters either. The Iraqi insurgency aims at undermining Washington through US public opinion rather than military victory. (Power and Interest News Report)

Iraqis Begin Debating the Riddles of Sovereignty (November 26, 2003)

The plan to accelerate the transfer of power leaves many complex questions open, such as the status of Islam and how much authority the Kurdish areas will have. (Los Angeles Times)

Iraqi CPA Fires 28,000 (November 21, 2003)

US government officials scathingly criticized the decision taken by the Coalition Provisional Authority to fire 28,000 Iraqi teachers as a form of political punishment for their past affiliation with Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party. Said one former CIA official, "[US] ideologues don't seem to grasp the seriousness of their acts." (United Press International)

Perception and Reality (November 20, 2003)

This author believes that in establishing a new government for Iraq, planners should focus less on "nationalism" and "self-determination," and more on including the Iraqi citizens in the ownership of the country's oil wealth. (Asia Times)

Surprising Roadblocks for the US in Iraq (November 17, 2003)

The US lacks not only the personnel to stabilize security in Iraq, but also the money to quickly rebuild the country's shattered infrastructure. The Power and Interest News Reportlooks at these obstacles that cripple the world's biggest military power.

Speeding Up Iraqification (November 14, 2003)

Coalition Provisional Authority leader Paul Bremer made an urgent visit to the White House in the wake of escalating violence against US military personnel and its partners. The Economistspeculates that the emergency meeting signifies Washington's wish to hasten the handover of power to the Iraqis.

US Occupation of Iraq Entering Critical Phase (November 12, 2003)

This article from Power and Interest News Reportcompares the Bush administration-led "Iraqification" to "Vietnamization" policies of the 1960's and 70's. The article points out that Washington never succeeded in installing a Vietnamese government that simultaneously followed US interests and enjoyed local legitimacy.

Few Parallels with Germany and Japan (November 9, 2003)

US President George Bush often mentions Germany and Japan as successful examples of US occupation. Yet experts point out the danger of misusing historical analogies. Bush and others use these analogies "the way a drunk uses a lamp post, not for illumination but for support." (Miami Herald)

Iraq Small Arms Are a Big Threat (November 5, 2003)

The US estimates that there are over 650,000 tons of small arms in post-war Iraq. This article from the Christian Science Monitorcriticizes the US weapons buyback program, claiming that it feeds a flourishing black market weapons trade and perpetuates a climate of insecurity in the country.

US Administrator Imposes Flat Tax System on Iraq (November 2, 2003)

Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) leader Paul Bremer implemented a 15% flat tax on corporate and individual income in Iraq. The news discomforted Iraqi leadership closest to the CPA. "A piece of social engineering is being done on Iraq, but it has almost no support from . . . the Iraqi Governing Council," said a commentator. (Washington Post)

The Arab World After the Occupation of Iraq (October 2003)

This article from Le Monde diplomatiquehighlights the strategic objectives of the US National Security Strategy (NSS). The article bemoans the neoconservative ideology behind the document, and the drive to use military force to achieve its objectives.

Hard to Leave, Harder to Occupy (September 19, 2003)

The leaders of Kurdish factions, the Iraq National Accord and other groups that resisted the reign of Saddam Hussein offer a plan to quell Iraqi resentment of the occupying powers. One proposal asks the occupying powers to cease their "frontline" occupation tactics and hand over policing and patrolling to the groups' own militias. (Inter Press Service)

An Unsustainable Policy on Iraq (September 14, 2003)

This New York Timeseditorial criticizes the Bush administration for mishandling post-war Iraq and its relations with the international community. Unfortunately, "moving forward will require new thinking from an administration that has shown little inclination to learn from its mistakes."

Some Grim News About Iraq: Bush Warns of a Heavy Burden (September 8, 2003)

A former foreign policy advisor to George Bush describes the US President's vision for post-war Iraq as "optimism blended with a touch of naí¯veté." A speech to the nation mixed ingenuous platitudes with sobering glimpses of reality, such as the $87 billion price tag of occupation. (New York Times)

Don't Say We Were Not Warned About This Chaos (September 5, 2003)

"Bring ‘em on," US President George Bush taunted guerrilla fighters in Iraq. The guerillas have taken him at his word, says Robert Fisk, so the current turmoil is not surprising. (Independent)

Quagmire? What Quagmire? (September 3, 2003)

This Foreign Policy in Focusarticle cites data on military and civilian casualties and the cost of occupation to argue that the aftermath of the US-led war in Iraq is worse than a quagmire: it's a black hole.

Political, Economic Costs of Occupation Mount (August 29, 2003)

The costs of occupation keep growing with the rising number of US causalities and the declining legitimacy of Washington in the Arab world. On the economic side, Bremer announced that oil revenues would not be able to cover Iraq's financial needs. (Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty)

Governing Iraq (August 25, 2003)

This report argues that the US should allocate governing responsibilities in post-war Iraq among the Coalition Provisional Authority, UN and Iraqi Interim Governing Council. The report makes further recommendations on governing Iraq to the Occupying Forces, UN, Interim Governing Council and the Arab League. (International Crisis Group)

Alone, the US Will Fail (August 24, 2003)

Will Hutton argues that the continuing attacks on the Occupying Forces and the bombing of the UN headquarters in Baghdad illustrate that peace in Iraq will remain elusive until the US truly internationalizes reconstruction. (Observer)

Iraq the Ungovernable (August 20, 2003)

The BBCargues that foreign powers have always found Iraq ungovernable. It cites the example of Britain's past difficulties of maintaining control over Iraq in the 1920s.

How America Created a Terrorist Haven (August 20, 2003)

Professor Jessica Stern, a Harvard terrorist expert, argues that the bombing of the UN headquarters in Baghdad constitutes the latest evidence that the US has turned Iraq into a terrorist threat to the international community. (New York Times)

Portrait of an Iraqi Rebel (August 16, 2003)

The Bush administration and Coalition Provisional Authority consistently emphasize that Ba'ath loyalists and some Islamic fundamentalists are responsible for the attacks on US soldiers. Salonprovides a contrasting view with an interview of an anti-Ba'athist and non-fundamentalist Iraqi rebel opposed to the US occupation.

Women's Rights Become a Struggle in Iraq (August 14, 2003)

Iraqi women increasingly face harassment, abduction and rape in the post-war era. The Occupying Forces have offered little security, much less help with women's financial needs. This article details the activities of Yanar Mohammed, co-founder of the Organization of Women's Freedom. (United Press International)

Terror's Gains (August 13, 2003)

In post-war Iraq, organizations linked to al-Qaida have brought men into Iraq to fight the Occupying Forces. Since the end of war, Iraq looks like a fertile ground for terrorists. Therefore, the Baltimore Sunargues that post-war Iraq may constitute a greater threat to international security then its pre-war state.

Basra Could Boil Over Again (August 12, 2003)

Improved electricity supplies ended two days of protests and rioting in Iraq's second largest city of Basra. However, some Iraqis warn that riots will reignite and spread if living conditions worsen. (Los Angeles Times)

Tension Grows Between US Troops, Iraqis (August 9, 2003)

Amnesty International accuses the US Army of violating international law by subjecting Iraqi prisoners to "cruel, inhuman or degrading" conditions. The US denies these claims. Furthermore, tensions grow between the US Army and the people of Iraq as Iraqis perceive that the Occupying Forces mistreat them and show a lack of respect for their culture. (Associated Press)

Let Iraqis Decide What to Privatize (August 5, 2003)

Washington's plan to sell government-owned companies in Iraq to private investors assumes two things: that privatization represents what free people anywhere prefer and that it's best for them. Both of these assumptions are questionable. Columbia University Professor Moshe Adler believes that these decisions are best left to the people of Iraq. (Washington Post)

US Fostering Sinister Sort of Democracy (August 1, 2003)

Robert Fisk argues that a unique form of "democracy" has begun to develop in Iraq under the Occupying Forces. This "democracy" results in a paternalistic ruler acting autocratically but moderately, to govern Iraq and allow the US to leave. As Daniel Pipes asserts, "democratic-minded autocrats can guide [Iraq] to full democracy better than snap elections." (Independent)

Soaring Costs of ' Rescuing' Iraq (July 31, 2003)

Washington forecasted that the "liberation of Iraq" was the war that would pay for itself, and give US corporations the inside track into the world's second largest source of oil. Instead, the post-war situation has degenerated into a fiscal nightmare. (International Press Service)

Iraq: Meeting the Challenge, Sharing the Burden, Staying the Course (July 30, 2003)

US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations report on post-war Iraq reconstruction efforts. The report recommends deploying "sufficient" forces to subdue Iraqi resistance, intensify efforts to recruit and retrain Iraqi police, and share the burden of reconstruction by seeking a broader role for the UN, NATO and others US allies.

US Bartering Arms for Soldiers for Iraq (July 30, 2003)

Amidst the rising death toll among US soldiers in Iraq the US attempts to "buy" foreign troops for a proposed 30,000-strong multinational force in Baghdad. (International Press Service)

"They Treat Us Like Cattle" (July 30, 2003)

Arrests and abuses by US forces continue to rise in Iraq. In addition, Iraqi detainees and prisoners often encounter inhumane conditions while imprisoned by the Occupational Forces. Amnesty International has denounced the inhumane treatment of prisoners by US forces. (La Liberation)

A Closed Circle of Collaborators (July 28, 2003)

Most Iraqis don't trust the Iraqi Governing Council, the first national political body since the fall Saddam Hussein's regime. Interviewing politicians, academics and unaffiliated Iraqi citizens, the International Center of Occupation Watchfound that many are worried by the body's unrepresentative nature and lack of democratic legitimacy.

US Adopts Aggressive Tactics on Iraqi Fighters (July 28, 2003)

The US military has responded to increased guerrilla attacks with aggressive and even illegal counter-measures, such as hostage taking. This report from Baghdad tells how US forces seized the wife and daughter of a wanted Iraqi lieutenant general to pressure him into surrendering. (Washington Post)

Iraq and the Broader War (July 28, 2003)

The assassination of Saddam Hussein's sons has not deterred, nor slowed the pace of the Iraqi guerrilla resistance. The current disarray within the Bush administration complicates US strategy to control guerrilla attacks. (Stratfor Weekly)

I Did Not Want to be a Collaborator (July 27, 2003)

A former member of the Iraqi Reconstruction Council explains that his decision to resign was based on his disillusionment with the council's role. He says that the council did not, as he had envisioned, work with the US as allies in a democratic fashion, but instead collaborated with them as occupying forces. (Observer)

Noble Act or Political Assassination? (July 25, 2003)

With the Bush administration's "just war" lying in ruins, the killings of the Hussein brothers looks more like a zealous political assassination than a noble act. (Boston Globe)

Trapped in a Quagmire, Again (July 25, 2003)

History proves that people often underestimate the consequences of war. This article puts the errors of the Bush administration in its handling of post-war Iraq in a historical context, drawing comparisons to World War I and other past wars. (Chicago Sun Times)

Body Counts (July 25, 2003)

As the death toll for the US rises daily, regular people in the US begin to think about what it means to fight what's now acknowledged as a guerrilla war. Comparisons between the war against Iraq and the Vietnam War have begun to circulate. Christopher Dickey believes that this war could become worse than Vietnam. (Newsweek)

Memorandum on Concerns Relating to Law and Order (July 23, 2003)

This report highlights the issues relating to the overall legal framework in US-occupied Iraq. It addresses concerns relating to the use of force, detention practices, treatment in custody, searches and the role of the judiciary; and it calls for the need to ensure accountability of the Coalition Provisional Authority. (Amnesty International)

The Ugly Truth of America's Camp Cropper (July 22, 2003)

Robert Fisk accuses the US military in Iraq of beating Iraqi prisoners during interrogations and gunning down three prisoners "while trying to escape." Fisk tells the story of a Danish citizen captured by the US military and detained at the military's "Camp Cropper" for over 30 days without notifying his family or the Danish government. (Independent)

Chaos in Bush's Iraq (July 18, 2003)

Paul Bremer, the US-appointed overseer of Iraq, claims, "For the first time in decades, Iraqis are truly free." Yet ordinary Iraqis still do not experience democracy and they suffer from lack of basic essentials and security instabilities under the current US occupation of Iraq. (Socialist Worker)

US High Horse Now Riderless (July 17, 2003)

The Atlanta Journal-Constitutionsays that if Vietnam was the place where the US lost its innocence, Iraq may be the place where it loses its arrogance. With the continuing controversies over Washington's justifications for war and resistance against the US occupation, the Bush administration is increasingly on the defensive.

Iraq Cost Could Mount to $100 Billion (July 13, 2003)

US congressional aides say that the cost of the war and occupation of Iraq may reach $100 billion by next year. With the US federal budget deficit growing each day, these projected war costs could have serious negative impacts for other federal programs. (Washington Post)

No Real Planning For Postwar Iraq (July 12, 2003)

Civilian officials in the Defense Department who dominated planning for post-war Iraq failed to prepare for recent setbacks. In post-war Iraq, US forces face growing instability, while losing soldiers daily to escalating guerrilla attacks. In addition, the cost of occupation has reached almost $4 billion a month. (Knight Ridder Newspapers)

Want to Criticize the Israelis for Shooting Stone-Throwers in Gaza? (July 12, 2003)

Robert Fisk argues that US forces in Iraq have begun committing the same atrocities as the Israelis in Palestine. He compares the US attack on an Iraqi suburb, killing 16 innocent victims, with Israeli's bombing of a poor residential area in Gaza that killed the same number of civilians. The Bush administration condemned this Israeli attack in Gaza. (Independent)

Internationalization of Occupation or Pluralism of Reconstruction? (July 11, 2003)

Will the US try to internationalize Iraq's administration by returning to some sort of mulitlaterialism in the reconstruction process or will it internationalize the occupation under its total control? The latter would make other countries accept losses the US now suffers. (Al-Hayat)

How Will We Know What Victory Looks Like In Iraq? (July 11, 2003)

Successes in the Gulf War and Afghanistan memories of the war in Vietnam. So far, the Iraq War has not degenerated into the horrors of Vietnam, but US soldiers face growing Iraqi opposition. (Chicago Sun-Times)

Power Cuts and Lost Jobs Stir Anti-US Anger (July 11, 2003)

The US has clearly squandered most of the credit it enjoyed at that symbolic moment of Iraq's "liberation." Since then, the Occupying Forces have failed to deliver democracy, security and basic resources. This has created a dire living situation in much of Iraq, fueling anti-US sentiments. (Guardian)

US Repeats Vietnam-Era Arrogance (July 9, 2003)

In the aftermath of President Bush's comment to "bring on" Iraqi resistance to the Occupying Powers, the US government created a new perception that it is a haughty superpower. Such arrogance harkens back to Vietnam and the observation of Martin Luther King Jr. that the US were ''strange liberators.'' (Boston Globe)

Say It: This Is a Quagmire (July 7, 2003)

The body count of US soldiers rises daily as the Occupying Forces encounter armed resistance. The media continues to minimize the number of losses, feeding a growing anger among military personnel and their families. (Alternet)

Some See Shades of Vietnam in Iraq (July 6, 2003)

Military analysts insist that the US faces a guerrilla war in Iraq, comparable to that of past struggles in Asia and Latin America. They express fear that the Bush administration underestimates the scope and magnitude of the insurgency. (Chicago Tribune)

Only the Arabs Can Save Iraq - and Save America from a New Vietnam! (July 4, 2003)

In spite of the tough talk in the Bush administration, the US public and government are anxious about pacifying and reconstructing Iraq. Al-Hayatproposes that an ‘Arab force' take responsibilty of Iraq.

"Bring 'Em On?" (July 3, 2003)

In this article, a former Special Forces soldier critically responds to Bush's cowboy confidence of US troops in post-war occupation of Iraq. (Counterpunch)

Imperial History Repeats Itself (July 3, 2003)

Post-war US troops in Iraq remain vulnerable to attacks by people struggling under foreign rule. Washington's solution resembles that of London's at the beginning of the 20th century: call for reinforcements from other countries that did not take part in the attack. (Guardian)

Expectations Gap Rankles Iraq (July 2, 2003)

Social insecurity and acts of sabotage continue to grow in Iraq. This narrows the opportunity for the Occupying Powers to conduct large-scale political and economic program. (Christian Science Monitor)

Occupation Forces Halt Elections Throughout Iraq (June 28, 2003)

US military commanders ordered a halt to all local elections and self-rule in provincial cities and towns across Iraq. The Occupying Forces instead plan to install handpicked mayors and administrators, many of whom are former Iraqi military leaders. This exemplifies the Occupiers' lack of commitment to democracy in Iraq. (Washington Post)

The Roving Eye (June 27, 2003)

The Iraq War was officially declared over on May 1, 2003; yet, the Occupying Forces continue to suffer losses daily. The people of Iraq view the Bush administration as perpetuating the occupation by maintaining chaos, exacerbating violence and deepening divisions among Iraqis. (Asia Times)

The United States in Iraq (June 26, 2003)

The invasion and occupation of Iraq by the US and UK embodies a new unilateral approach to post-conflict humanitarian action. In post-war Iraq, UN agencies and NGOs are expected to play supportive roles within a Pentagon managed effort. Early results of this approach have not been promising as the humanitarian situation continues to deteriorate. (Foreign Policy in Focus)

The Specter of Vietnam (June 26, 2003)

Howard Zinn, author and historian, believes that despite the obvious differences between the Iraq and Vietnam wars, there are enough similarities to justify their comparison. Both wars were fought on justifications created by lying to the US public. In addition, both wars were based on fears of an "imminent threat" later proven false. (Tom Paine)

Sweet Land of Liberty (June 26, 2003)

Mass graves found in Iraq contain the victims from the atrocities of the Hussein regime. These graves were dug long ago when US officials such as Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld pursued closer ties with Iraq. (Counterpunch)

Bring the British Troops Home (June 26, 2003)

The killing of 6 UK soldiers by a civilian uprising in Iraq surprised many in the US and UK. Resistence by Iraqi civilians should come as no surprise to the peoples of the UK or US. Occupation forces kill Iraqi civilians and conduct Vietnam-style "search and destroy" raids on people's homes. (Guardian)

The Path to Peace (June 25, 2003)

The Occupying Forces should have total control of Iraq, yet they remain isolated and disorganized. The Coalition Provisional Authority has so far failed in attempting to bring normality to Iraq. In addition, the task of bringing peace and security to Iraq seems as if it will only get harder in time. (Independent)

Our Role in Iraq Affects US Politics (June 24, 2003)

The success or failure of the US occupation in Iraq still rests on a knife's edge. The US won an easy military victory but it has been unable to turn this into a political victory. The continuing volatile situation in Iraq and the response from the people of Iraq will directly affect the next US presidential election. (Seattle Post-Intelligencer)

'We Will Send Them Back the Bodies of Their Soldiers' (June 22, 2003)

Professor Firas Al-Atraqchi believes that the people of Iraq fare far worse now than they did under the Hussein regime. Iraqis no longer feel safe in their own homes. Rape and murder rule the night. They lack electricity, and adequate amounts of food and medicine. These dire conditions create a breeding ground for Iraqi resistance. (Yellow Times)

Bush's Vietnam (June 22, 2003)

John Pilger, author and documentary filmmaker, draws comparisons between the "rapacious adventures' of the US in Iraq and Afghanistan with the Vietnam War. Once again, the media talks of the US military being "sucked into a quagmire." (New Statesman)

Iraq: Arabs Challenge US Plans to Open Nation to Multinationals (June 22, 2003)

Paul Bremer, Washington's leading official in Iraq, favors opening Iraq to trade and foreign investment and privatizing government businesses. Arab business and political leaders defy these plans to transform the economy into a free market, opening it to exploitation by the world's multinational companies. (Inter Press Service)

Powerless Iraqis Rail Against Ignorant, Air-Conditioned US Occupation Force (June 22, 2003)

Few Iraqis mourn the fall of the Hussein regime, but the Occupying Forces spark resentment in their failure to provide basic resources. According to one citizen, "they can take our oil, but at least they should let us have electricity and water." (Independent)

Smashed US Memorial Points to Deepening Iraqi Anger (June 20, 2003)

A memorial commemorating the death of a US soldier during the war has sparked anger from the local people in Baghdad. Soon after raising the memorial, Iraqis destroyed it out of frustration with the US occupiers' continuing presence and their failure to deliver security, democracy, or even full-time electricity. (Christian Science Monitor)

Time to Let Iraqis Step Up (June 20, 2003)

The US should encourage the transformation of Iraq into a modern and dynamic nation as rapidly as possible. Instead, occupation "czar" Paul Bremer's go-slow, crisis-management style impedes the democratization of the new Iraq. In the process, his policies push the image of a war of liberation into a war of occupation. (Washington Post)

'I Just Pulled the Trigger' (June 19, 2003)

The Evening Standard interviews a group of US troops who describe their experiences during the attack on Iraq and the post-war period. These soldiers admit to having "killed civilians without hesitation, shot wounded fighters and left others to die in agony."

Who Is Governing Iraq? (June 19, 2003)

This article presents a general outline of who runs post-war Iraq and the organization of the operation of the Coalition government. (Washington Post)

The Right to Resist (June 19, 2003)

Since the collapse of the Hussein regime, Iraq sinks deeper into chaos and insecurity. US forces increasingly lash out against Iraqi attacks, which kill an average of one US soldier a day. (Guardian)

Just Another Day in Baghdad (June 19, 2003)

Unemployment, fear and bitterness characterize life for the people of Baghdad. The US withholds the pay it has promised to recently laid-off Iraqi soldiers. These soldiers' demonstration against the administration has resulted in injuries and deaths. (Guardian)

What Are Americans Dying for Now? (June 18, 2003)

Oil is a precious commodity for which the US government will sacrifice its citizens. Oil represents the real reason for why the Bush administration went to war. This conclusion becomes increasingly apparent as US soldiers continue to die at a growing rate. (Boston Globe)

Moral Guises (June 18, 2003)

Al-Ahram accuses President George Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair of deliberately misleading the world into a war they had already planned. They now defend the war on moral grounds, arguing that democracy will come to Iraq. Yet the occupying forces have done little in post-war Iraq to promote democracy.

Not So Fast! (June 18, 2003)

Political opposition figures in Iraq remain unimpressed and hostile toward US plans to appoint a political council to assist in running the occupied country. Ayatollah Mohamed Ali Sistani, a prominent religious authority, states, "the American campaign to put an end to Saddam's tyranny now looks like an occupation, not a liberation." (Al-Ahram)

From Liberation to Counter-Insurgency (June 18, 2003)

President George Bush declared that Operation Iraqi Freedom had liberated Iraq from the evil Hussein regime. US forces now fight daily domestic resistance and act less like liberators and more like "offensive occupiers." (Asia Times)

America's Rebuilding of Iraq Is in Chaos, Say British (June 17, 2003)

A Senior British official in Baghdad states that the US-led reconstruction of Iraq is "in chaos" and suffering from "a complete absence of strategic direction." The US has transposed Washington's inter-departmental fighting to the severely understaffed Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) in Baghdad. (Daily Telegraph)

The War Continues (June 17, 2003)

The self-censoring US media did not report the June 9th launch of the largest military offensive in Iraq since the fall of Baghdad. This omission left US citizens unaware that President George Bush not only lied about the existence of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, but also about the end of the war.(ZNet)

US Faces Long, Hot Summer in Deadly Tinderbox (June 17, 2003)

Iraqi military attacks against US occupying forces are on the rise. This may be an indication of a continual guerrilla war against the US military. Journalists have begun draw parallels to the Vietnam War. (New Zealand Herald)

Iraq Occupation Has Deadly Toll for US (June 16, 2003)

More US military personnel have died in Iraq in the last month than in Afghanistan over the last year. Forty-six US casualties have resulted from fighting after the war, representing a continuing threat from Ba'ath party loyalists and others opposed to US occupation. (Boston Globe)

US Antiguerrilla Campaign Draws Iraqi Ire (June 16, 2003)

Recent US military operations in Iraq have focused on capturing or killing pro-Baathist guerrillas and "terrorists who try to hinder rebuilding efforts." These operations and attempts at collecting civilian weapons cause grave concerns among Iraqi citizens trapped in the midst of a security crisis. (Christian Science Monitor)

US Hunt for Baath Members Humiliates, Angers Villagers (June 15, 2003)

US troops raided the village of Thuluya in their hunt for Ba'ath party loyalists leaving 3 civilians dead. US forces arrested and subsequently detained 400 residents. The experience has "transformed" the village, creating distrust and animosity in the town against the US. (Washington Post)

As US Fans Out in Iraq, Violence and Death on Rise (June 14, 2003)

Numerous contradictory reports accompany militant attacks against US forces. US troops claim to have killed 5 "attackers," while local residents assert that they were merely innocent bystanders. (New York Times)

Bloodshed Ends US Honeymoon (June 11, 2003)

An increasingly regular series of attacks against coalition forces has unsettled the occupying forces in Iraq. Forty-two US servicemen have been killed since the Bush administration declared the war officially over on May 1, 2003. (Daily Telegraph)

Gives with One Hand, Takes Away with the Other (June 11, 2003)

L. Paul Bremer III, head of the Coalition Provisional Authority, has come out against "hate speech" in the newly free Iraqi media. He has recently assigned himself the task of monitoring the Iraqi press with absolute powers and the censorship has begun. (Index)

Islam, Democracy, and Human Rights in Iraq (June 11, 2003)

Kamran Memon, a civil rights attorney and founder of the Muslim Bar Association of Chicago, believes that the consensus to become a democracy and the desire for an Islamic state are two parallel forces at work in Iraq. How Iraqis act under this influence will determine whether the two blend harmoniously or collide in conflict. (Yellow Times)

Downsizing in Disguise (June 5, 2003)

Naomi Klein insists that Iraq is currently undergoing rapid "structural adjustments" like those seen previously in Russia and Argentina. These past economic "shock therapies" crippled the economies of those countries and are likely to do the same in Iraq. (Nation)

Iraqis Not Ready For Democracy, Says Blair's Envoy (June 3, 2003)

Special Envoy to Iraq John Sawers declared that Iraq's political culture is too weak and the country is not ready for democracy. He further claimed that the Coalition forces failed to realize how much the Iraqis' "attitude problems" after decades of oppression would impede reconstruction of the country. (Times)

The Day of the Jackals (June 2, 2003)

In a speech at the national anti-war teach in, Arundhati Roy stated that "the US invasion of Iraq was perhaps the most cowardly war ever fought in history." (ZNet)

US Increases Role in Picking Iraqi Leaders (June 2, 2003)

The US has canceled plans for a national conference among the people of Iraq. Instead, the occupying powers will assemble an alternative council to work quickly toward an interim government. (Los Angeles Times)

A Tale of Two Baghdads (June 2, 2003)

The Washington Poststates that soldiers are reporting a warm welcome from Iraqi citizens, but that this may be ill-perceived as many residents express ambivalence or outright anger.

Descending into the Quagmire (June 2003)

Retired US colonel Daniel Smith asserts that the Bush administration's handling of Iraq parallels the mistakes of Vietnam-era predecessors. (Foreign Policy in Focus)

The Troops Are Afraid to Go Out at Night (May 30, 2003)

Robert Fisk of the Independentreports about the dangerous reality in post-Saddam Iraq. The US "liberation" has turned into anarchy on the streets of Baghdad.

Occupation Regime Installed in Iraq (May 26, 2003)

Hans von Sponeck, former UN Coordinator for Humanitarian Aid to Iraq, discusses the impacts of the war and the future of Iraq with the German newspaper Junge Welt.

Not Another Afghanistan (May 28, 2003)

Afghanis fear Iraqis will suffer the same years of unrest, countless dead and desperate poverty as Afghanistan does. They also worry that because of the war and reconstruction of Iraq, US and Europe will forget about the people of Afghanistan.(Alternet)

UN Chiefs Warns of Anti-American Backlash in Iraq (May 27, 2003)

Ramiro Lopes da Silva, the UN's most senior humanitarian official in Iraq, criticizes some of the US post-war reconstruction plans. He said that US attempts to rebuild the country are overly dominated by "ideology" and risk triggering a violent backlash. (Guardian)

Gun Gangs Rule Streets as US Loses Control (May 25, 2003)

The US has failed to provide security for the people of Baghdad. The population has armed itself with weaponry looted from the military stores and the city has spiraled into anarchy with daily shootings. (Observer)

Who Is Governing Iraq? (May 22, 2003)

A brief guide in the Washington Postexplaining some key components in the US Military occupation of Iraq. It includes information about key players, the role of Iraqi leaders and the role of the US military.

Plan to Secure Postwar Iraq Faulted (May 19, 2003)

Washington is perceived, as an occupier in Iraq and lawlessness is widespread in the country. According to peacekeeping experts, Pentagon made a mistake to ignore lessons from previous operations, for example in Balkans and Afghanistan. (Washington Post)

Iraqis Say Anarchy Could Lead to Anti-US Violence (May 19, 2003)

Grievance is growing among Iraqis against US failure to restore law and order in Baghdad. Othman, a taxi driver described the post-Saddan situation for the people in Iraq as "now we live in terror from crime and we live in poverty." (Reuters)

In Reversal, Plan for Iraq Self-Rule Has Been Put Off (May 17, 2003)

The US and the UK have decided until further notice to put off the plan to permit Iraqi opposition to form a national assembly. Leaders of the opposition group were disappointed by the decision to have allied officials in charge of Iraq for an indefinite period of time. (New York Times)

In Baghdad, a Surge in Homicides (May 16, 2003)

There are major problems of law in Baghdad more than a month after US troops entered the capital. Armed robberies and revenge killings are frequent and the homicide rate is rapidly increasing. (Christian Science Monitor)

Coalition Troops Are Accused of Torture (May 16, 2003)

Amnesty International is investigating claims that prisoners of war in Iraq have been kicked and beaten by soldiers while being interrogated by US and UK forces. (Associated Press)

Port Handed Back to Iraqis (May 15, 2003)

UK soldiers that captured the southern city Umm Qasr have handed back the city to Iraqi civilian rule. In a week, elections will be held in Umm Qasr to appoint a council. (BBC)

US Still Looking For a Winning Team (May 15, 2003)

Changes in the US administration of Iraq include Paul Bremer taking over the civil administration in Baghdad from retired US Major-General Jay Garner. This is viewed as a US effort to calm the population and to bring civil order in Iraq. (Radio Free Europe)

New Policy in Iraq to Authorize GI's to Shoot Looters (May 14, 2003)

In an aggressive approach to bring order in post-war Iraq, US soldiers have permission to shoot looters on sight. According to a US official the soldiers "are going to start shooting a few looters so that the word gets around" that "crimes will be dealt with using deadly force." (New York Times)

Chalabi Well Placed For Iraq Power Despite Controversies (May 14, 2003)

Ahmad Chalabi, the leader of the Iraqi National Congress (INC), remains controversial for many Iraqis. The INC attempts to improve Chalabi's status by launching a campaign to clear his past in Jordan where he is convicted in absentia for fraud and embezzlement. (Agence France-Presse)

Iraqi Leaders Voice Concerns on US Shuffle (May 13, 2003)

Possible leaders in the interim government want the US to curve the ongoing anarchy and chaos in Iraq. There are also concerns about Paul Bremer III who will serve as a civil administrator in post-war Iraq. Bremer has a longtime association with former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, whom the Kurds blame for their betrayal in the intelligence wars between Iran and Iraq three decades ago. (New York Times)

US Begins Shake-Up of Postwar Iraq Team (May 12, 2003)

The US post-war team has been harshly criticized by Iraqis for not doing enough to restore security and improve the health situation. Only a month after Barbara Bodine arrival, she has been ordered back by Washington. Bodine was in charge of Baghdad and the surrounding area and some of her responsibilities included restoring public service. (International Herald Tribune)

Liberation, One Month On (May 9, 2003)

Phil Reeves reports from Baghdad; a month after the regime fell the lawlessness continues and US forces exchange fire with armed Iraqis almost on a daily basis across the country. (Independent)

Iraq's Special Envoy, With a Special Task (May 8, 2003)

Information about L. Paul Bremer III who will serve as a civil administrator of post-war Iraq. Bremer is a member of several corporate boards and is known for advocating a very hard line against "extremist Islam." (Asia Times)

A Sense Of Limbo In South (May 6, 2003)

Saddam Hussein is not in power anymore but there is no security and the fate of Iraqi people remains unknown. An engineering professor at Basra University described the situation in Iraq as follows; "this is chaos, not freedom." (Washington Post)

Opposition Groups to Help to Create Assembly in Iraq (May 6, 2003)

The main Iraqi opposition groups have agreed to meet in May to name an interim executive council or prime minister to run the country. At the same time there is frustration with the indecisiveness of General Garner's administration and with the debates over whether to fully remove Saddam Hussein's Baath Party structure. (New York Times)

Iraq Stabilisation Force Takes Shape (May 6, 2003)

The US led coalition has plans for a peacekeeping force in Iraq that divides the country into three sectors. The US will run the central sector, including Baghdad, the UK the south and Poland the north. (BBC)

US Struggles in Quicksand of Iraq (May 5, 2003)

The fall of Saddam Hussein has "opened a Pandora's box" according to Wamid Nadmi, professor at Baghdad University. Citizens in Iraq are frustrated that efforts to begin reconstruction and restore security are encountering great difficulties. (Los Angeles Times)

Iraq Leadership Expected Soon; First Election Held (May 5, 2003)

The United States stated that Iraq should have an interim national leadership in place by mid-May. In the first election process since the fall of Saddam Hussein in the city of Mosul, 200 representatives cast their votes for a 24-member council at a meeting organized by the United States military. (Reuters)

Deciding Who Rebuilds Iraq Is Fraught With Infighting (May 4, 2003)

There is friction between the departments of State and Defense about appointments to run and rebuild Iraq. There has been some concession made by the State Department but the control of the reconstruction agency remains with Pentagon officials and handpicked former generals. (Washington Post)

US Set to Name Civilian to Oversee Iraq (May 2, 2003)

Paul Bremer, a former counterterrorism director in the Reagan administration, is to be appointed civilian administrator of Iraq. This step is also viewed as an attempt by the State Department to restrain the Pentagon, which has dominated the policy in Iraq. (New York Times)

Gas Station Explosion Hints of Disarray in Postwar Iraq (May 2, 2003)

There is a great shortage of gasoline in Iraq because the oil wells and refineries are inactive. Chaotic scenes are taking place around gas stations; in a recent accident a gas tank exploded and at least three people were killed during the celebration of the resumption of electricity. (Cox News Service)

Bush Officials Draft Broad Plan For Free-Market Economy in Iraq (May 1, 2003)

The Bush administration has drafted sweeping plans to remake Iraq's economy in the US image, calling for the privatization of state-owned industries (including parts of the oil sector), the formation of a stock market, and the implementation of income and consumption taxes. (Wall Street Journal)

Shameful Conquest (May 1-7, 2003)

The disagreements among Iraqi delegates at a meeting convened by the US and UK to work towards an interim government, combined with the continuing political demonstrations in the streets of Baghdad, suggest that many questions remain about the political future of post-war Iraq. (Al-Ahram Weekly)

The Occupation Of Iraq (May-June, 2003)

In just three weeks, the US invaded Iraq, brought down its regime and occupied the country. "Operation Iraqi Liberation," more appropriately referred to as OIL, ended in a clear US military success. However, the conflict came at an immense cost and create a huge coalition of the unwilling including most of the world's states. (International Socialist Review)

The US and Post-War Iraq (May, 2003)

According to Stephen Zunes the post-war situation in Iraq is very chaotic. The power vacuum has cleared the way for social and political organizations to "mobilize quasi governmental institutions" that might rebel against the occupiers. In addition, the war in Iraq has sparked an increase in anti-US sentiment throughout the region. (Foreign Policy in Focus)

Who Will Govern Iraq? (April, 2003)

This text examines the four possible models of administrations in Iraq; US Neoconservative, Afghan, Iraqi Exile, and the Minimalist model. It asserts that the neoconservative model combined with elements from the Afghan model is the most likely to be used. (Foreign Policy in Focus)

Three Weeks On, Many in Baghdad Feel Angry, Hopeless (April 30, 2003)

Three weeks after the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's government, many parts of Baghdad still have no water or electricity, there are floods of sewage in the streets, and only a trickle of urgently needed food and medical supplies have made it into the country. Nevertheless, the retired general overseeing Iraq's postwar reconstruction says that Americans should be "beating our chests" with pride. (Reuters)

Privatization in Disguise (April 28, 2003)

Naomi Klein argues that US plans for the reconstruction of Iraq's infrastructure reflect the desire of Washington neoliberals to "design their dream economy: fully privatized, foreign-owned and open for business." (The Nation)

Iraq After Saddam (April 27, 2003)

Religion can play a major role in post-war Iraq. In the midst of all the unrest in the country, the only functioning social system is that of the mosques and the only leaders with any credibility are the prayer leaders. (Observer)

Short-Sighted US Foreign Policy Spells Trouble Ahead (April 24, 2003)

Firas Al-Atraqchi in Yellow Timeslists mistakes made by the occupying powers in Iraq ranging from only securing the oil ministry building to blaming Iran for the Shiites' anger against the US.

Postmodern Imperialism (April 24, 2003)

A good way to understand US policy is to look at the era of European colonization. Today many problems are consequences of the British colonial past in the Middle East. (Le Monde)

US Tries to Curb Iranian Role in Iraq (April 23, 2003)

What might take place in post-war Iraq is reflected by former Assistant Secretary of State Martin Indyk, who stated, "we have to get rid of this naive notion that by turning on the lights and fixing the hospitals we are going to be able to build a moderate, representative government in Iraq. We're going to have to play the old imperial game of divide and rule and the stakes could not be higher." (Reuters)

US Can Learn From Afghanistan (April 23, 2003)

Christian Aid's emergency officer Dominic Nutt, who spent time in Afghanistan, urges the US to immediately deal with the post-war situation in Iraq or it will face similar problems to Afghanistan (Christian Aid)

US Planners Surprised by Strength of Iraqi Shiites (April 23, 2003)

Iraqi Shiite demonstrated a show of strength during a pilgrimage in Karbala. The group demands a future role in Iraq and they are more organized than the US anticipated. (Washington Post)

Religion and Politics Resurface As the New Voices of Iraqi Freedom (April 22, 2003)

Political parties that have not been allowed to operate legally for decades are re-emerging across Iraq. They range from the Shias, one of the main opponents of US occupation, to the liberal party. (Guardian)

Ba'athists Slip Quietly Back Into Control (April 21, 2003)

Less than two weeks after the collapse of Saddam Hussein's regime, thousands of members of the Ba'ath party are resuming their positions in Iraq. Policemen, members of the information ministry, and bureaucrats at the oil ministry have all found roles under the US occupation. (Guardian)

US Overseer Arrives in Baghdad To Begin Interim Government (April 21, 2003)

General Jay Garner, set to lead an interim administration in Iraq, arrives in Baghdad. The General states that he is a "facilitator not a ruler", but opposition is growing to the invading forces taking a leading role in Iraq's reconstruction. (Reuters)

Baghdad's Mayor - a Sign of Things to Come (April 21, 2003)

US will have difficulty forming a stable pro-Washington Iraqi regime. For example Mohsen al-Zubaidi, an Iraqi dissident who lived in Iran, has been chosen as the head of the provisional administration of Baghdad. (Asia Times)

US Army Was Told to Protect Looted Museum (April 20, 2003)

A memo sent to the US army last month by the US Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance warned that Iraq's national museum was "a prime target for looters" and should be protected. Despite the warning, the army failed to post soldiers outside the museum, and it was ransacked, with more than 270,000 artefacts taken. (Observer)

Grab-Bag of Iraqi Goodies? (April 17-23, 2003)

According to Gamal Nkrumah, a "dumbfounded and divided Europe" is waiting to see if the US will permit it to play a role in determining the future of post-war Iraq. (Al-Ahram Weekly)

US Floods Iraq With Dollars (April 17, 2003)

The US Federal Reserve airlifted millions of US dollars into Iraq to begin paying Iraqi civil servants in dollars, while denying allegations that it plans to dollarize the economy. The sudden influx of dollars may weaken confidence in the dinar, and will likely prove to be a politically sensitive issue. (BBC)

Responsibilities of the Occupying Powers (April 16, 2003)

This report, by Amnesty International, focuses on the responsibilities of the US and the UK, as occupying powers, to protect the fundamental rights of the Iraqi population. It outlines the international legal framework and makes specific recommendations.

US Forces Will Redeploy Into 3 Zones (April 16, 2003)

The US and British military are entering into a post-war phase of enforcing security and restoring services around the country. They plan to divide the country into three zones with army Lt. Gen. Jay M. Garner overseeing reconstruction and humanitarian efforts. (Washington Post)

Iraqis Divided As Talks Open (April 16, 2003)

Iraqi factions held US-sponsored talks on the country's future. But representatives for the Shiite Muslims were not present because they oppose plans to install the retired Lieutenant General Jay Garner to run an interim administration in Iraq. (International Herald Tribune)

How and Why the US Encouraged Looting in Iraq (April 15, 2003)

Pillage in Iraq may have been more than a disorganized and spontaneous reaction by Iraqis to their new "liberty." Many accuse the US of having deliberately allowed the widespread plunder of Iraqi cities, buttressed by the fact that only oilfields and the Oil Ministry were protected. (World Socialist Web Site)

Financial Scandal Claims Hang Over Leader In Waiting (April 14, 2003)

Ahmad Chalabi, the Pentagon's favorite to take over the rule of Iraq, was sentenced to 22 years of prison in Jordan for 31 charges of fraud, embezzlement, and other charges. Chalabi's Jordan-based Petra Bank reportedly funneled millions of dollars into Chalabi-family accounts in London, Lebanon, and Switzerland, leaving poverty-stricken Jordan to reimburse $200 million to depositors. (Guardian)

Religion-Based Work Fills Vacuum in Baghdad (April 14, 2003)

With the power-vacuum and the looting in Baghdad, members of religious communities are trying to restore order themselves by organizing neighborhood security patrols. Some religious leaders envision Iraq as an Islamic state, which may run counter to US administrative plans for the country. (Boston Globe)

US Push to Forgive Iraq Debt Underway (April 12, 2003)

US Treasury Secretary John Snow is urging France, Germany and Russia to cancel at least part of Iraq's billions of dollars in debt, which experts say Iraq cannot possibly pay in full. Debt relief advocates support the move, but blast Washington for hypocritically opposing the forgiveness of other impoverished countries' debt burdens. (Washington Post)

Fears for the Future (April 11, 2003)

The assassination of Abdul Majid al-Khoei, a US-backed Shia cleric, soon after his return from exile in London is symptomatic of the growing uncertainly about the political future in Iraq, according to Brian Whitaker of the Guardian.

Under New Management: Garner Plan Will Divide the Country Into Three Zones (April 10, 2003)

Iraq will be divided intro three zones by the interim civil administration headed by retired US general Jay Garner. The General will have the difficult mission to avoid giving the appearance of taking over the country. (Independent)

Woolsey's Role Crucial to Impact of Occupation (April 8, 2003)

Former CIA director James Woolsey pushed for the war on Iraq, convinced that Washington has a mission to use its military power to transform the Arab world. "If he soon pops up in Baghdad, you can bet that the ‘clash of civilizations' is imminent," says Foreign Policy in Focus.

Three Stages to a New Iraq (April 8, 2003)

There are three stages that can be implemented for post-war Iraq; military rule, Interim Iraqi Administration and the representative government elected by the Iraqi people. (BBC)

Long-Exiled Chalabi Gets His Chance (April 8, 2003)

Ahmad Chalabi, leader of the Iraqi National Congress, has some support from Washington for a leading role in post-war Iraq. But according to a recent CIA report on the aftermath of war, an overwhelming numbers of Iraqis are very skeptical of Chalabi and the INC. (Los Angeles Times)

British Set Up First Post-War Government (April 8, 2003)

In the southern city of Basra, British forces put a local sheik in power who will be responsible for setting up an administrative committee representing other groups in the region. (Associated Press)

No Representative Government in Future Iraq (April 7, 2003)

There are fears the new government in Iraq will be headed by Ahmed Chalabi. The government will be a puppet regime and Chalabi will be the middleman for US and UK strategic oil interests in the region. (Yellow Times)

Rule by Allies May Pass 6 Months, Wolfowitz Asserts (April 7, 2003)

US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz states that it will take the US more than six months to establish an Iraqi government to run the country after President Saddam Hussein's regime has been defeated. (New York Times)

US Begins the Process of Regime Change (April 6, 2003)

Part of an interim government can be installed even as fighting still rages in Baghdad. The government will be part of Pentagon's plan, rebuffing Europeans calls for a greater UN role.(Observer)

US Draws Up Secret Plan to Impose Regime on Iraq (April 1, 2003)

The plan for a new government in Iraq will consist of 23 ministers headed by the US. Iraqi exiles, who have little support from their people, will also fill key advisory positions. (Guardian)

US Arms Trader to Run Iraq (March 30, 2003)

Jay Garner, the retired US general who will oversee humanitarian relief and reconstruction in Iraq, is also the president of SY Coleman, a company that provides crucial technical support in the manufacture of the Patriot missile system. Garner's background is causing serious concerns at the UN and among international aid agencies. (Observer)

Man Who Would Be "King" of Iraq (March 30, 2003)

Oliver Morgan of the Observerprofiles Jay Garner, the former US general who will head the Pentagon's Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance in Iraq. Some aid agencies are worried about Garner's connections to prominent hawks in the Bush administration and to arms manufacturers.

Britain and US at Odds Over Port Rebuilding Project (March 28, 2003)

Tensions are rising amongst British companies over rebuilding post-war Iraq because their US counterparts appear to be getting preferential treatment in receiving contracts. (Independent)

Prince of Darkness: Deals in the Shadows (March 29, 2003)

Jason Leopold examines the various controversies surrounding Richard Perle, who resigned as chairman of the Defense Policy Board after disclosures about conflicts of interest in his business dealings. Perle had resigned from a previous post as assistant secretary of state in April 1987 amid complaints of conflicts of interest. (Asia Times)

Unfinished Business (March 28, 2003)

Richard Perle's resignation as chairman of the Defense Policy Board raises questions about US economic involvement in postwar Iraq. According to a report by the Center for Public Integrity, at least 10 of the 30 members of the Defense Policy Board are executives or lobbyists with companies who have contracts with the US Defense Department and other government agencies. (Guardian)

The Day After In Iraq: Lessons From Afghanistan (March, 2003)

Decades of foreign intervention and war decimated Afghanistan's capacity to maintain a viable state, and the international community's post 9-11 nation-building efforts have proven insufficient. Now, a US-led war on Iraq may plunge the country into chaos and ethnic warfare, and post-war reconstruction plans remain unclear. (Foreign Policy in Focus)

Democracy Domino Theory 'Not Credible' (March 14, 2003)

According to a classified US State Department report, installing a new regime in Iraq is very unlikely to foster the spread of democracy in the Middle East. (Los Angeles Times)

EU Warns on Postwar Iraq Funds (March 13, 2003)

Chris Patten, the EU commission for external relations, stated that if the US attacks Iraq without Security Council approval the EU might withhold money for the reconstruction. (International Herald Tribune)

Pax Americana: The Building of Empire (March 10, 2003)

History repeats itself in Iraq, but this time, the last stand is between "efforts to create an American Empire and the will of the rest of the world." (Yellow Times)

Hussein's Successor Might Be the US (February 28, 2003)

Washington has two different plans on Iraq: one is a "go-it-alone" strategy, and the other is to share the burden of rebuilding Iraq with a political transition plan similar to those used in Kosovo and East Timor. (Los Angeles Times)

For Bush, Saddam is Already in Past Tense (February 28, 2003)

Many of President George W. Bush's statements focus on post war Iraq and not the war itself. It is part of the White House's strategy to refer to Saddam Hussein in the past tense and emphasize Bush's vision of a "Saddam-free world." (International Herald Tribune)

Full US Control Planned for Iraq (February 21, 2003)

US plans for unilateral control of Iraq include a prisoner of war camp with opposition members serving as guards and an American directing the "creation of a ‘representative' Iraqi government." (Washington Post)

Breaking Faith (February 20, 2003)

Al-Ahram Weeklyreports that members of the Iraqi opposition of all political persuasions have expressed vehement objections to US plans for a post-war Iraq.

Future of Post-war Iraq Divides Bush Administration (February 18, 2003)

Post Gulf War plans has received criticism some US government have criticized post-war plans, saying that the US must not only remove Saddam Hussein but also other members of his regime. The officials want to see a transnational administration with the participation of the INC (Iraqi National Congress). ( Foreign Policy in Focus)

Our Hopes Betrayed (February 16, 2003)

This statement in Observer by Kanan Makiya, the leading intellectual of the Iraqi National Congress, slams US plans for a post-war military government. The White House considered his statement to be "counter-productive."

The Iraq Bush Will Build (February 9, 2003)

President George W. Bush and his administration are drafting a three phase plan to establish a new regime after the war with Iraq. In the scheme, the final phase includes a "handover to a regime sympathetic to and nurtured by Washington." ( Observer)

US Chooses Saddam's Successor (February 4, 2003)

According to Mohamed al-Jabiri, a former Iraqi diplomat, the United States has chosen Ahmed Chalabi, the head of the Iraqi National Congress, as the successor to Saddam Hussein. ( Sydney Morning Herald )

A Time to Break Silence: US Complicity in Saddam's Crimes Against Humanity (February 2, 2003)

US companies' previous weapons exports to Saddam Hussein's regime reveals that "war crimes in the Third World are acceptable so long as they fit within US global strategy and aims." (In Motion Magazine)

Specter of Lebanon Haunts Iraq Occupation Plans (January 31, 2003)

Does History repeat itself? Foreign Policy in Focuscompares a possible post-Saddam US occupation of Iraq with the 1982 invasion of Beirut by Israel. What happened in Lebanon may well augur what could happen in Iraq.

US Is Completing Plan to Promote a Democratic Iraq (January 6, 2003)

As the war drums grow louder, the Bush administration is devising a complex plan to occupy a post-war Iraq and impose a military occupation government in the name of "democracy." Plans include the immediate seizure of Iraqi oil fields. Administration officials say US occupation of Iraq will last "at least" 18 months. (New York Times)

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FAIR USE NOTICE: This page contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Global Policy Forum distributes this material without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. We believe this constitutes a fair use of any such copyrighted material as provided for in 17 U.S.C § 107. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.